cracow lemberg lodomeria galician poland galizien crown
GALICIA, in German Galizien, and in Polish Italia, a crown-land of Austria which comprises the old kingdoms of Galicia and Lodomeria, the duchies of Auschwitz and Zator, and the grand-duchy of Cracow. Towards the N. and E. it has an extensive and irregular frontier conterminous with the Russian empire ; in the S.W. it meets the Hungarian territory along the ridge of the Carpathian Mountains; its western borders, which are of small extent, touch both Austrian and Prussian Silesia ; and in the S. it is bounded by the province of Bukowina, which was separated from it in 1849. As its area is 30,299 square miles, or more than 10,000 square miles greater than that of Bohemia, it is the largest of all the crown-lands of Austria. The population in 1869 was 5,418,016, which showed an increase since 1857 of 785,150. Of the whole 2,660,518 were musics, and 2,757,498 females. The density was greatest in the circles of Biala, Tarnow, and Cracow, and least in the circle of Radworna. In 1876 the total was 6,000,326.
About a third of the whole area of Galicia is occupied by the Carpathians, and the greater proportion of the remainder consists of the terraces by which the mountain system gradually sinks down to the great eastern plains of Russia. Only a very small district near the Vistula can properly be described as lowland. The two most prominent summits of the Galician Carpathians are the Babia Gora or Women's Mountain, 5648 feet above the level of the sea, and the Waxmundska, 7189. Of the famous massif of the Tatra, hardly a fourth is within the Galician boundaries.
By its rivers Galicia belongs partly to the basin of the Baltic and partly to the basin of the Black Sea. The Dunajec, the San, and the Premsza, tributaries of the Vistul a, are the navigable streams of the western region ; and the Dniester, which is the principal river of the east, is navigable as far as Czartoria. There are few lakes in the eo•mtry except mountain tarns ; but considerable morasses exist about the Upper Dniester, the Vistula, and the San, and the ponds or dams in the Podolian valleys are estimated to cover an area of 208 square miles, Of the 35 mineral springs which can be counted in Galicia, the most freouented are Konopowka, south of Tarnopol, and Lubian and Sklo, west of Lemberg. The last is a good example of the intermittent class. The Galician climate is exceedingly severe, the range of temperature being nearly 145°. In July and August the mean temperature is 66' or 670 Palm; in March it is 32° or 33°. Winter is long, and the snowfall, which oftens begins in the early part of October, is very abundant. At Cracow the annual precipitation is about 23 inches, and at Lemberg about 28. Rather more than 6 per cent. of the surface of Galicia is unproductive. Forests occupy upwards of 4 million acres, but they are so badly managed that in some districts straw has to be used as fuel ; 1,550,128 acres are devoted to pasture, 8,486,358 are under tillage, and 3,007,024 are under gardens and meadows. Barley,.oats, and rye, are the prevailing cereals ; but wheat, maize, and leguminous plants are also cultivated, and hemp, flax, tobacco, and hops are of considerable importance. In 1873 the whole crop of cereals amounted to 9,878,563 bushels ; and there were 2,016,326 bushels of pulse, and 65,581,331 bushels of potatoes. In 1869 the number of horses in the crown-land was 695,610; of asses and mules, about 2000; of cattle, 2,070,572 ; sheep, 966,763; goats, 35,825 ; and swine, 734,572. The stocks of bees were upwards of 257,490, and the yearly produce of honey and wax is about 18,300 and 71E6 cwt. respectively. In Wrest Galicia there are mines of coal, ironstone, and zinc ore ; and in Eastern Galicia a certain quantity of lignite is obtained. The iron ore is poor, containing only 10 or 11 per cent, of metal; and in 1873 the out-put did not exceed 108,546 cwt. Salt is procured both front mines and from salt-springs in sufficient abundance to make it an article of export to Russia. The great factory at Kalusz for the making of potash was closed in 1875, the company having failed ; and the exploitation of the rich petroleum springs of East Galicia languishes for lack of capital. Cracow is the centre of the iron manufacture, but it is of comparatively small development. Tile works are very numerous ; stoneware is produced in a few establishments; and the glass works number about 15. In 1874 there were 237 breweries, 598 distilleries, and 3746 mills, - no fewer than 3524 of the mills being driven by water and 172 by wind. Cigars are manufactured at Monasteryska and Winniki, Cracow, Jupielnica, and Zablotow. The textile industries are for the most part very slightly developed, but the linen trade employs 11,255 looms. Railway traffic is rapidly increasing. There is a large transit trade down the river Dniester to Russia by means of light boats built at Zuravero, Halicz, Marianpol, &c., which are usually broken up for firewood when ' they reach Odessa ; and all the navigable streams, both north and south, are used for the transport of wood from the forests. Large quantities o-f Galician timber thus find their way to Dantzie, Stettin, Hamburg, and Berlin. The country is divided into the eight districts of Lemberg, Zloczow, Tarnopol, Stanislawow, Sambor, Przemysl, Tarnow, and Cracow, which altogether comprise 74 administrative circles. There are in all 83 towns, 230 market villages, and 11,000 hamlets, the most populous places being Lemberg, 87,109 ; Cracow, 49,835 ; Tarnow, 21,779 ; Tarnopol, 20,087 ; Brody, 18,890 ; Kolomiya, 17,679; Drohibiez, 16,888; Przemysl, 15,185; Stanislau, 14,479; Sambor, 11,749, Jaroslau, 11,1G G ; Rzeszow, 10,090 ; and Sniatyn, 10,305. The chief tows is Lemberg, which is the seat of the royal imperial lieutenancy- or K. K. Statthalterei. According to the laws of 1861 the diet of Galicia consists of the three archbishops (those of the Roman Catholic, the Greek Catholic, and Armenian Catholic Churches), the three Roman Catholic bishops, the rectors of the universities of Lemberg and Cracow, 44 representatives of the larger landowners, 4 representatives of the capital, 3 representatives of the chambers of trade and industry, 16 from the towns and industrial centres, and 74 from the rural communes. Sixty-three members are sent to the imperial diet, of whom 20 represent the landowners, 13 the towns, 27 the rural communes, and 3 the chambers of trade, &c. The two principal nationalities in Galicia are the Poles and the Ruthemansthe former predominating in the west and the latter in the east. The Poles who inhabit the Carpathians are distusgaished as GoraIians (from gor, a mountain), and those of the lower regions as Mazures and Cracoviabs, The Ruthenian highlanders bear the name of Huzulians.
Galicia (or Halicz) took its rise along with the neighbouring principality of Lodomeria (or Vladimir) in the course of the 12th century - the seat of the ruling dynasty being llalicz or HaEtch, a town in the present district of Stanislawow at the confluence of the Luker with the Dniester. Disputes between the Galician and Lodomerian houses led to the interference of the king of Hungary, Bela 1H., who in 1190 assumed the title of 14ca: Galatia!, and appointed his son Andreas lieutenant of the kingdom. Polish assistance, however, enabled Vladimir the former possessor to expel Andreas, and in 1198 Roman, prince of Lodomeria, made himself master of Galicia also. On his death in 1205 the struggle between Poland and Hungary for supremacy in the country was resumed ; but in 1215 it was arranged that Daniel, son of Homan, should be invested with Lodomeria, and KoIonian, son of the Hungarian king, with Galicia. Rothman, however, was expelled by •stislatf of Novgorod ; and in his turn Andreas, Matislairs nominee, was expelled by Daniel of Lodomeria, a powerful prince, who by a flexible policy succeeded in maintaining Ins position. Though in 1235 he had recognized the overlordship of Hungary, yet, when he found himself hard pressed by the Mongolian general Bath, lie called in the assistance of Innocent IV. and accepted the crown of Galicia from the hands of a papal legate; and again, when Innocent disappointed his expectation, lie returned to his former connexion with the Greek Church. On the extinction of his line in 1340 Casimir III. of Poland incorporated Galicia and Lemberg; on Casimir's death in 1370 Louis the Great of Hungary, in accordance with prerious treaties, became king of Poland, Galicia, and Lodomeria; and in 13S2, by the marriage of Louis's daughter with Ladislaus II., Galicia, which he had regarded as part of his Hungarian rather than of his Polish possessions, became definitively assigned to Poland. On the first partition of Poland, in 1772, the kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria came to Austria, and to this was added the district of New or West Galicia in 1795; but at the peace of Vienna in 1809 West Galicia and Cracow were surrendered to the grand-duchy of Warsaw, and in 1S10 part of East Galicia, including Tarnopol, was made over to Russia. This latter portion was recovered by Austria at the peace of Paris, and the former came back on the suppression of the independence of Cracow in 1840. Within the short period since 1860 great advances have been made in many ways in the development of the natural resources of the country and in the education of the people ; and the general prosperity of the kingdom is evidenced by the rapid growth of several of its larger towns.
See Lill de Lilienbach, " Description du bassin de Its Galieie et de la Podolia" in Me'moires de la societd geologique de France, tome i., mMin. iv., 1533-04; Schmmles, Geoge-statist. Ce!.ersieht Galiziens, Lemberg, 1869; Lipp, Verkehrsund Hande7srerhaltnisse GWiciens, Prague, 1570; Zehlicke, "Die polit. and soeialen Zustiinde Galiziens," in Unsere Zeit,1870; " Die 1tuthcncr in Galizien," in Die Globus, 1570; Pilat, Statist. Mittheil. fiber die Verhdltnisse Galiziens, Lemberg, 1i;74; Grtsrepertorium des Konigreichs Galician vnd Lodomerien (official), Vienna, 1574; Zelicke, " Die dentschen Kolonien in Galizien," in los _Yemen 1S76; Kelb in Jihrberichl der K. Geol. Reichs-Anstall, 157G; "Gulturforiscluitte in Galizien," in Das Ausland, 1576. Remarkable sketches or Galician life have been given by Sacher-Masuch, whose works are well known in France and Germany. A rich literature on the sulject exists in Nash.