Krudener, Barbara Juliana Von Avietinghoff
KRUDENER, BARBARA JULIANA VON AVIETINGHOFF, BARONESS VON (1766-1824), authoress of the romance of Yu/624e, but better known by the religious fervour and pious mysticism of her later years, was born of noble and wealthy parents at Riga, November 21, 1766. Her education, which was an elaborate one, was received partly in her father's house and partly in Paris. While still very young she was married to the Baron von Kriidener, a Russian diplomatist twenty years her senior, whom she accompanied to Copenhagen and subsequently to Venice ; the union did not prove a very happy one, and for some years the couple lived apart. It is understood that Valgrie, published by Madame Kriidener in 1804, is to a considerable extent an autobiography of this period of her life ; if this be so, it is impossible to exonerate her of all blame for the domestic misfortunes which befel her. After the death of her husband she resided for some time in Paris, mingling freely with a large and brilliant social circle, but afterwards she retired to her property in Livonia, where her sense of the vanity of earthly things gradually deepened, and religious yearnings were quickened which ultimately found satisfaction in the doctrine and worship of the Moravian community. In 1SOS she saw much of Jung Stilling at Carlsruhe and of Oberlin in Steinthal ; and the religious convictions now formed were held by her with such earnestness that she felt constrained to adopt the vocation of an itinerant preacher. Her obvious sincerity, her culture and refinement, her social standing, enabled her to attract considerable notice throughout Baden, in Strasburg, and in Switzerland, especially in Geneva ; and at Heilbronn in 1815 she could reckon even an emperor (Alexander I. of Russia) among her attentive hearers. Her activity, however, which was hardly favourable to established church order, soon became distasteful to the authorities, and, after being invited to withdraw from more than one German state, she again retired into private life on her estate in 1818. Led by her enthusiasm of humanity to St Petersburg, she was dismissed by the emperor for having declared her sympathy for the struggling cause of Greece. Ill health' now came upon her, and she was advised by her physicians to seek a warmer climate. On the southward journey she died at Karasu-Bazar on December 25, 1824. Her life has been written by Eyuard ( Vie de Madame de Eriidene2:, 2 vols., Paris, 1849).