school schools police city society london royal college street founded
CRIME. - The London police district, or " Greater London," is divided into two police jurisdictions, that of the metropolitan police, with an area of 440,919 acres, and that of the City police, with an area of 668 acres. The Metropolitan police force, which superseded the night watch in 1830, owes its existence to a bill introduced by Sir Robert l'eel, providing for the establishment of a Metropolitan police under the control of the executive government. In 1839 the old watch was abolished within the City limits and a City police force appointed, which, however, is entirely under the control of the common council. There are two police courts within the City district, viz., Guildhall and _Mansion House; and thirteen within the Metropolitan district, viz., Bow Street, Clerkenwell, Great Marlborough Street, Marylebone, Westminster, Lambeth, Southwark, Thames (Stepney), Worship Street, Woolwich, Greenwich, Ihmmersmith, and Wandsworth. The headquartersof the Metropolitan police are at Scotland Yard. The expenses of the two City police courts in 1880 were £10,031, and those of the Metropolitan police courts were £59,009, of which £10,527 was defrayed by fines and forfeitures. The Metropolitan police have power to regulate the street traffic, to inspect and license cabs, omnibuses, and other public conveyances, to interfere in abating smoke nuisance, and to inspect common lodging-houses. From 6158 in 1861 the ;Metropolitan force bad in 1880 increased to 10,943, or one to every 430 of the population ; the City police force from 623 to 830, or one to every 61 of the population. The increase of the City police force is necessitated wholly by the in crease in the number of persons who daily frequent the City, for not only has the night population greatly diminished, but the resident criminal population has become almost extinct. The number of persons belonging to the criminal classes in the whole police district of the metropolis in 1880 was 2392, or one in 1992 of the population in 1881 ; the number of known thieves 1385, the number in England being 17,907 ; the number of indictable offences was 17,835 (of which 1137 occurred in the City), the number in England being 52,427 ; and the number of apprehensions 5261 (City 612), the number in England being 22,231. Of indictable offences 49 were murders, 6 attempted murders, 443 attempted suicide, 1150 burglaries, 8918 simple larcenies, 1745 larcenies from the person, and 367 utterances of counterfeit coin ; 47 bodies of persons found dead and unknown were photographed and not identified. The number of offences determined summarily within the area of the Metropolitan police district was 125,302, or 11.41 to every policeman, the proportion of indictable offences to every policeman being 6.70. The number of offences determined summarily within the City area was 5649, or only 6.70 to every policeman, while the proportion of indictable offences was only .78. The total expense of the Metropolitan police was £1,168,061, or about £106 per man; £451,334 was contributed to the expense from public revenue, and £93,071 was received for special services. The expense of the City police, £90,662 in 1880, is defrayed wholly by rate, and the cost per man is about £109.
The following table (XXIII.) gives details regarding police and crime in the Metropolitan police district since 1871, by which it will be seen that, although compared with the increase of population the total number of apprehensions has diminished, there has of late years been a considerable increase in the number of felonies, and that the amount of property lost by felonies has been increasing very seriously : - The Newgate and Holloway prisons are in the hands of the Court of Aldermen. Newgate, rebuilt after the riots of 1780, is now no longer used for persons awaiting trial in the Central Court. The City prison, Holloway, which is the house of correction for City prisoners, was erected in 1851 at a cost of nearly £100,000. Bridewell, which occupied the site of a royal palace, and was granted to the city as a house of correction by Edward VI., was discontinued in 1864 ; the old Fleet prison was abolished in 1844, its site being now occupied by the Memorial Hall of the Congregationalists ; Horse-monger Lane prison was superseded by Wandsworth prison ; and the Marshalsea in Southwark, immortalized by Charles Dickens, had been discontinued long before he wrote. The house of detention for Middlesex is Cierlcenwell, and its houses of correction are Coldbath Fields for male prisoners and Westminster for females. Wandsworth is the prison for Surrey. The convict prisons within the metropolitan area are Brixton, Millbank, Bentonville, Wormwood Scrubs, Woking, and Fulham.
EmmATioN. - Until the constitution of a School Board for London in 1870, the only special organizations for providing education to the poorer classes in London were the British and Foreign School Society, founded in 1808, and the National Society, founded in 1811. Many of the parish schools became amalgamated with those of the National Society, but the united efforts of these societies, and also of the Church of England, of the different denominations, and of various promiscuous charitable institutions, failed so completely to meet the necessities of the rapidly increasing population, that in 1851 the total number of scholars attending public schools was only 167,298, and that in 1871 the returns of the voluntary schools showed that there was accommodation for only 262,259 children, or 39 per cent. of the estimated population of school age. By October 1881 the School Board had supplied accommodation for 236;024 children, which with that in voluntary schools gives a total number of places sufficient for 502,095 children, in addition to which schools are in the process of erection for upwards of 100,000 more. Up to August 1881, 6838 children were sent to industrial schools at the instance of the board, and the board now possesses three industrial schools under its own management. The total number of children attending workhouse, separate union, and parochial and district schools in 1880 was 35,223, the amount paid to teachers in these schools being £37,110. The total expenditure of the School Board for the year ending 25th March 1881 was £1,236,360. The amount paid by rating authorities in 1881-82 was £676,579, the late in the pound being 6.15d., a less rate than that for 1880-81, which was 6.28d., but in all probability there may for some years be a slight increase. The average cost of the 3129 teachers in 1880 was £123. The gross cost per child has risen from £2, 4s. 9d. in 1874 to £2, 17s. ld. in 1881, but there will probably be a considerable diminution when the schools become all fully occupied throughout a whole year. The following table (X XIV.) gives a comparison of cost between the board schools and other schools of London and of England in 1880 : - Fitzstephen mentions that in his time the three principal churches ( possessed by ancient privilege and dignity celebrated schools, and that other schools were permitted on sufferance. The churches s referred to are supposed by Stow to have been St Paul's Cathedral, St Peter's at Westminster, and St Saviour's, Bermondsey, in Southwark. The various other priories and religious houses which were afterwards founded had each its school, though of less fame than the earlier ones. On account of the suppression of the alien priories and religions houses by Henry V., Henry VI. in 1445 founded grammar schools at St Martin's-le-Grand, St Mary-le-Bow, St Dunstan's in the West, and St Anthony's, and in the following year others in St Andrew's, Holborn, All Hallows the Great, St Peter's, Cornhill, and in the hospital of St Thomas of Aeon. The custom of school disputatious mentioned by Fitzstephen was continued till the time of Stow, who states that they were restrained an account of the quarrels between the boys of St Paul's and St Anthony's. In his time the principal schools "repairing to these exercises " were St Paul's, St Peter's (Westminster), St Thomas of Aeon, and St Anthony's. The last-named, which commonly presented the best scholars, and at which Sir Thomas More, Lord Chancellor Heath, and Archbishop Whitgift received their education, had, however, latterly greatly decayed. Up to the time of the dissolution of the monasteries education in England had been in the hands of the religious houses, but, though many of the grammar schools in Loudon were then discontinued, several were re-erected and re-endowed, and others were added in subsequent years. Of there schools there are now existing St Paul's, St Peter's (Westminster), Christ's Hospital (Blue Coat School), Merchant Taylors' School, Charterhouse, Mercers' School, and the City of London School.
St Paul's School, St Paul's Churchyard, was re-established in 1512 by Dean Colet, for the free education of one hundred and fifty-three poor children, and was endowed with lands whose original annual -Value was £122, 4s. 7(.1., but which now yield nearly £6000 yearly. The board of governors consists of thirteen members chosen by the Mercers' Company and nine nominated by the universities. Vacancies on the foundation are filled up by competition, and the school fee for the scholars is £20. The course of study, which formerly was chiefly classical, is DOW specially designed to prepare for the army examinations. The site of the school will soon be changed to West Kensington, where grounds to the extent of 16 acres have been purchased.
St Peter's School, Westminster, re-endowed by Queen Elizabeth in 1560, provides for 40 queen's scholars on the foundation ; and the school is also attended by about 180 day pupils. Besides six junior exhibitions tenable at school, there are eight exhibitions to Oxford or Cambridge. The management of the school is regulated by the Public Schools' Act of 156S. The school, which is in the Dean's Yard, was formerly the dormitory of the monks of the abbey.
Christ's Hospital (Blue Coat School), Newgate Street, founded by Edward VI. in 1533 on the site of the monastery of Greyfriais, has an annual income of over £60,000, and the number of children on the foundation is about 1180, including 410 at the preparatory school at I Iertford, of whom 90 are girls. The school is under the management of a court of governors, to which any one may be admitted on payment of a donation of £500. The education is chiefly commercial, lint four boys are annually sent to the universities. Tim boys still retain their ancient dress, as well as several peculiar privileges.
Merohant Taylors' School, which was formerly situated in Suffolk Lam, but in 1875 was removed to the Charterhouse, was founded by the Merchant Taylors' Company in 1561, and provides for the education of 500 boys annually on payment of 12 guineas in the lower school, and 15 guineas in the upper. The site of the present building was purchased for about £90,000, and the new school-house cost £30,000. The rooms of the pensioners of Charterhouse remain entire, as well as the chapel of the date 1512, the master's lodge, and the great chamber, the interior of which is a very fine specimen of Elizabethan work.
Charterhouse, formerly a Carthusian monastery and afterwards the seat of the I Towards, was purchased by Sir Thomas Sutton, and iu 1611 endowed as a school. On the foundation 50 pensioners are maintained at Charterhouse, and 60 scholars at the school at Godalining, where it was removed in 1872.
The Mercers' Grammar School, Collegiate Bill, Dowgate, was originally attached to the hospital of St Thomas of Aeon, which was sold in 1522 to the Mercers' Company on condition that they maintained the school. Of the 180 scholars 25 are free.
For the City of London School, founded by the City corporation in 1835, at Milk Street, Cheapside, to supply education to sons of respectable persons, a new building is in course of erection on the Thames cmhankinent. There arc preparatory schools in connexion with University College and King's College.
The University of London, Burlington Gardens, instituted in 1336, and removed in 1S69 to its present building in the Italian Renaissance style, is a mere examining body for conferring degrees. University College, Gower Street, founded in 1828 on undenominational principles, supplies instruction in all the branches of education - including engilleering and the fine arts - that are taught in universities, with the exception of theology, and is attended by over 1300 students. The buildings, the chief feature of which is the Corinthian portico at the main entrance surmounted by a dome, were. enlarge" by a wing in 1881, and contain a large library, and the Flaxman gallery, with original models by Flaxmam King's College, erected by Smirke in 1528, and forming the east wing of Somerset 11 wise, provides similar instruction to University College, but with the addition of theology, and in eonnexion with the Church of England. At Gresham College, founded in 1597 by Sir Thomas (;resham, and removed to its present building ill Basinghall Street in 1843, lectures are given on law, divinity, the sciences, music, and medicine. The lectures of the London Society for the Extension of University Teaching have been instrumental in stimulating to some degree general interest in literary and scientific subjects, and in 18S1 were attended by 3030 persons. The legal lectures in connexion with the inns of Court are noticed in the article Ix zs OF COURT, V01. Xiii. p. 68 sq.
SenExcE. - The great medical schools owe their fame and success to the attraction which London presents to eminent physicians and surgeons, and to the existence of extensive medical and surgical hospitals, which afford unequalled opportunities for the study of disease. In addition to the university of London, the Royal College of Physicians, founded. by Linacre, physician to Henry VII. and Henry VIII., is an examining body for diplomas in medicine ; and the Royal College of Surgeons, which originated in the livery company of Barber-Surgeons, formed by the incorporation of the surgeons with the barbers in 1540, has similar authority in regard to the practice of surgery. The College of Physicians, originally located in the private house of Linacre in Knight-Ilider Street, and afterwards in a building designed by Wren in Warwick Lane, removed to its present site in Trafalgar Square in 1825, where a-Gra:co-Italian structure was erected from the designs of Smirke at a cost of £30,000. The College of Surgeons, Lincoln's Inn Fields, erected 1835-37 from the designs of Barry at a cost of £40,000, contains the Hunterian Museum, purchased by parliament in 1799 (see HuNTEu, vol. xii. p. 390), an extensive library, and a lecture theatre. Until the time of John Hunter the medical and surgical education obtainable in London was of a very unsystematic character, and chiefly of a private nature, the provision made for dissection being often of the meagrest kind, while the lectures on anatomy and. surgery were both included in a course of six weeks. Hunter's lectures, first delivered in 1774, had a very influential effect in the development of the medical and surgical schools connected with the hospitals, but their most rapid progress has been during the present century. A full description both of these hospitals and of the hospitals for special diseaseswill be found in the ailicleENGLAND, vol. viii. p. 253 sq., and the article HosmrAL, Del. xii. p. 301 sq. Among the other scientific schools of London may be mentioned the Royal School of Mines, Jermyn Street ; the Normal School of Science, South Kensington ; the Royal Veterinary College, Camden Town ; the Royal Naval College, Greenwich ; the Royal Naval School, N ew Cross ; the Royal 'Military Academy, Woolwich ; and the School of Practical Engineering at the Crystal Palace. The Guilds of London Institute for the advancement of technical education have lately founded colleges at Finsbury and South 'Kensington. The foundation stone of the South Kensington Institute was laid in 1882, and the building will be opened in 1884, the cost being £75,000, making a total with the Finsbury College of £102,000, in addition to £20,000 for fittings. The amonnt contributed by the Livery Companies to the undertaking is £23,000.
The most influential of the scientific societies is the Royal Society, incorporated by Charles II. in 1663. Originally located near Gresham College, Crane Court, it was removed in 1780 to Somerset House, and since 1857 it has occupied rooms in Burlington House, Piccadilly. In 1354 old Burlington house, built by Richard Boyle, earl of Burlington, was purchased by the Government for £140,000, and in 1S72 a new building in the Renaissance style was erected for the various societies formerly accommodated in Somerset House, viz., the Chemical Society, the Geological Society (instituted 1807, incorporated 1S26), the Society of Antiquaries (1707, 1751), the Royal Astronomical Society (1820, 1831), and the Linnean Society (1788, 1502). The Royal Geographical Society (1S30,1859), oocupying a commodious building in Savile Row, has within the last forty years taken a leading part in promoting geographical discovery. The Royal Asiatic Society (1823) is in Albemarle Sliest. The Royal Institution of Great Britain, in the same street, established in 1799 chiefly for the promotion of research in connexion with the experimental sciences, possesses a large library, a mineralogical nmseum, a chemical and a physical laboratory, and a foundation for a course of lectures. The Society of Arts, John Street, Adelphi, established in 1754 and incorporated in 1847, for the encouragement of arts, manufactures, and commerce, offers rewards for new inventions and discoveries, and grants certificates and prizes for proficiency in commercial knowledge, the industrial arts, musical theory, and domestic economy. Among other scientific societies the principal are the Statistical, the Meteorological, the Anthropological, the Entomological, the Numismatie, the Zoological, the Botanic, the Horticultural, the Institute of Civil Engineers, and the Royal Institute of British Architects. The Zoological Society, instituted in 1826, rented in 1828 a portion of Regent's Park, where they established gardens which now contain one of the finest collections of live specimens in the world. The gardens of the Botanic Society, which occupy 18 acres of Regent's Park, are not of a strictly scientific character, being used chiefly for musical promenades and flower shows, and are to be distinguished from the Government gardens at Hew, which are noticed under Hew (q.v.) The Horticultural Society, founded in 1804, possesses large fruit and flower gardens at Chiswick, and in 1561 entered upon a lease of 22 acres of ground, formerly occupied by the Exhibition of 1551, which they laid out at a cost of k50,000, and where they DOW hold their flower shows and fkes.
Of museums, London possesses two en a scale of unexampled vastness, the British Museum and the South Kensington Museum. The zoological collection of the British Museum is still at Bloomsbury, but the departments of geology, mineralogy, and botany were removed in 1881 to a new building in Cromwell Road, South Kensington, called the British Museum of Natural History. The British Museum at Bloomsbury, and the South Kensington Museum, which arc more directly connected with art than science, are noticed under the section Art. The Museum of Practical Geology, Jermyn Street, occupies a building in the Italian Palazzo style, erected in 1850 by Pennethorne at a cost of £30,000. It was founded in 1835 in connexion with the geological survey of the United Kingdom, and also contains specially fine collections illustrative of the application of the minerals and metals to the useful arts. In the Patent Office Museum at South Kensington there are many of the original examples of the greatest mechanical inventions of modern times ; and the United Service Museum, Whitehall, possesses relics and models illustrative both of the art of war and of the great naval and military achievements of England.