KOLHAPUB, a native state in the Bombay Presidency, India, lying between 15° 58' and 17° 11' N. lat., and between 73° 45' and 74° 24' E. long. ; it is bounded on the N. by Satara district, on the E. and S. by the states of Miraj, and Kurunchwad, and on the W. and S.W. by Sawantwari state and 1.1a,tnagiri district. The area is 3184 square miles. Kolhapur state stretches from the heart of the Sahytidri range eastwards into the plain of the Deccan, Along the spurs of the main chain of the Sahyddri hills lie wild and picturesque hill slopes and valleys, producing little but timber, and till recently covered with rich forests. The centre of the state is crossed by several lines of low lulls running at right angles from the main Sahyadri range. In the east the country becomes more open, and presents the unpicturesque uniformity of a well-cultivated and treeless plain, broken only by an occasional river. Among the western hills are the ancient Marhatta strongholds of Panhala, Vishalgarh, Baura, and Itungna. The rivers, though navigable during the rains by boats of 2 tons burthen, are all fordable during the hot months. Iron ore is found in the Sahyadri range, and smelting was formerly carried on to a considerable extent ; but now the Kolhapur mineral cannot compete with that imported from Europe. There are several good stone quarries. The principal agricultural products are rice, millet, sugar-cane, tobacco, cotton, safflower, and vegetables. The population of the state, including feudatories, was 802,691 in 1872, Hindus amounting to 953- per cent., and Mohammedans to 4 per cent. Pottery, hardware, and coarse cotton and woollen cloth are the principal manufactures. The chief exports are coarse sugar, tobacco, cotton, and grain ; piece goods, salt, silk, sulphur, and spices are imported.
The rajas of Xolhdpur trace their descent from Baja Ram, a younger son of Sivaji the Great, the founder of the Ma•hatta power. The prevalence of piracy caused the British Government to scant expeditions against Kolluipur in 1765 and 1792 ; and in the early years of this century the misgovernment of the chief compelled the British to resort to military op-rations, and ultimately to appoint an officer to manage the state. In 1862 a treaty was concluded with Sivaji III. The revenue of the state is estimated at £304,000. The military force consists of 1618 men. Exclusive of a few missionary institutions, there are in all 104 schools, attended by 5105 pupils. The climate is on the whole temperate.