KOSTRO1VIA, a town of Russia, capital of the government of the same name, 230 miles north-east of Moscow and 55 miles from Yaroslay. It is situated on the left bank of the Volga, at the mouth of the navigable Kostroma river, with suburbs on the opposite side of the Volga. It is one of the oldest towns of Russia, having been founded by Youri Dolgorouky in 1152. Its fort was often the refuge of the great princes of Moscow during war, but the town was plundered more than once by Tartars. The cathedral, built in the 13th century, and situated in the Krem/, or former citadel, is a fine monument of old Russian architecture. Kostroma has been renowned since the 1Gth century for its linen, which was exported to Holland, and the manufacture of linen and linen-yarn is still carried to some extent, flax being purchased in the governments of Kostroma and of Pskoff. There are also in the town and in its province several important cotton-mills, tanneries, saw-mills, an iron-foundry, and a machine factory. Owing to its situation on the Volga, and at the mouth of a navigable river, Kostroma carries on an active trade - importing grain and exporting linen, linen-yarn, leather, and especially timber and wooden wares. Population, 30,000.