portrait reynolds academy angelica
KAUFREUREY, an ancient town in the government district of Swabia and Neuburg, Bavaria, is situated on the Wertach, about 55 miles south-west of Munich by rail. The chief industry is cotton spinning and weaving, and there is a tolerably active trade in cotton-stuffs and cheese. The population in 1875 was 5553.
Kaufbenren is said to have been built in 842, and to have become a free imperial city by purchase in 1286 or 1288. In 1803 it passed to Bavaria. It was formerly a resort of pilgrims ; and Roman coins have been found in the vicinity.
K AUTFMAN, or KAUFFMANN, ANGELICA (1740-1807). This once popular artist and Royal Academician was born at Coire in the Grisons, October 30,1740 or 1741. Her baptismal name was NIaria-Anne-Angelica-Catharine. Her father, John Joseph Kauffmann, was a poor man and mediocre painter, but apparently very successful in teaching his precocious daughter. She rapidly acquired several languages, read incessantly, and showed marked talents as a musici in. Her greatest progress, however, was in painting.; and in her twelfth year she had become a notability, with bishops and nobles fot: her sitters. In 1751 her father took her to Milan, where she diligently studied the great masters. Later visits to Italy of long duration appear to hive succeeded this excursion, and in 1763 she visited Rome, returning to it again in 1764. From 'ome she passed to Bologna and Venice, being everywhere fête] and caressed, as much for her talents as for her personal charms. Writing from Rome in August 1764 t his friend Franke, Winckelmann refers to her exceptional populirity. She was than painting his picture, a half length, of which she also made an etching. She spoke Italian as well as German, he says ; and she also expressed herself with facility in French and English, - one result of the last-named accomplishment being that she painted all the English visitors to the Eternal City. "She may be styled beautiful," he aids, "and in singing may vie with our best virtuosi." While at Venice, she was induced by Lady Wentworth, the wife of the English ambassador, to accompany her to London, where she appeared in 1765. One of her first works was a portrait of Garrick, exhibited in the year of her arrival at " Mr Moreing's great room in Maiden Lane." The rank of Lady Wentworth opened society to her, and she was everywhere welt received, the royal family especially showing her great favour.
Her firmest friend, however, was Reynolds. In Iris pocket-book her name as "Miss Angelica" or "Miss Angel" appears frequently, and in 1766 he painted her, a compliment which she returned by the Portrait of Sir Joshua Reynolds, vatat. 46, which was exhibited by Lord Morley at the "Old Masters" in 1876. Another instance of her intimacy with Reynolds is to be found in the variation of Guercino's "Et in Arcadia ego " produced by lies at this date, a subject which Reynolds repeated a few years later in his portrait of Mrs Bouverie and Mrs Crewe. When, in 1768 or thereabouts, she was entrapped into a marriage with an adventurer who passed for a Swedish count, Reynolds befriended her, and it was doubtless owing to his good offices that her name is found among the signitarms to the famous petition to the king for the establish ment of the Royal Academy. In its first catalogue of 176C she appears with " RA." after her name (an honour whirl she shared with another lady and compatriot, Mary Moser) ; and she contributed the Interview of Hector aM. Andromache, and three other classical compositions. Fron this time until 1782 she was an annual exhibitor, sendin; sometimes as many as seven pictures, generally classic of allegorical subjects. One of the most notable of her per formances was the Leonardo expiring in the Arms of Francis the First, which belongs to the year 1778. In 1773 sin was appointed by the Academy with others to decorate St Paul's, and it was she who, with Biaggio Rebecca, painted the Academy's old lecture room at Somerset House. It is probable that her popularity declined a little in consequence of her unfortunate marriage ; but after her first husband's death (she had been long separated from him) she married Antonio Zucchi, a Venetian artist, then resident in England. This was in 1781. Shortly afterwards she retired to Rome, where she lived for twenty-five years with much of her old prestige. In 1782 she lost her father ; and in 1795 - the year in which she painted the picture of Lady Hamilton now at South Kensington - her husband. She continued at intervals to contribute to the Academy, her List exhibit being in 1797. After this she produced but little, and in November 1807 she died, being honoured by a splendid funeral under the direction of Canova. The entire Academy of St Luke, with numerous ecclesiastics and virtuosi, followed her to her tomb in St Andrea dells Frate, and, as at the burial of Raphael, two of her best pictures were carried in procession.
Popular as they were during her lifetime, the works of Angelica Kauffman have not retained their reputation. She had a certain gift of grace, and considerable skill in composition. But her drawing is weak and faulty ; her figures lack variety and expression ; and her men are masculine women. Her colouring, however, is fairly enough defined by Waagen's term "cheerful." Booms decorated by her brush are still to be seen in various quarters. At Hampton Court is a portrait of the duchess of Brunswick ; in the National Gallery an allegorical composition of Religion attended by the Virtues. There arc other pictures by her at Paris, at Dresden, in the Hermitage at St Petersburg, and in the Pinakotliek at Munich. The Munich example is a portrait of herself ; there is a second in the Utfizi at Florence, and a third in the National Portrait Gallery, South Kensington. A few of her works in private collections have also been exhibited among the "Old Masters" at Burlington (louse. But she is perhaps best known by the numerous engravings from her designs by Schiavonetti, Bartolozzi, and others. Those by liartolozzi especially still find considerable favour with collectors. tier life was written in 1810 by Giovanni de Rossi. It has also been used as the basis of a romance by Leon de Wailly, 1838; and it prompted the charming novelette contributed by Mrs Richmond Ritchie to the Conthill ilaqaeine in 1875 -under the title of "Miss Angel." (A. .D.)