LINDLEY, JOHN (1799-1865), botanist, was born on February 5, 1799, at Catton near Norwich, where his father, George Lindley, author of A Guide to the Orchard and Kitchen Garden, owned a nursery garden. He was educated at Norwich grammar school, and early manifested a taste for the studies in which he afterwards gained distinction. His first publication, iu 1819, a translation of the Analyse du Fruit of Richard, was followed in 1820 by an original Honographia Rosarunz, with descriptions of new species, and drawings executed by himself, and in 1821 by ..Ifonographia Digitalium, and by " Observations on Pomaceze " contributed to the Transactions of the Linnean Society. Shortly afterwards he went to London, where he was engaged by Loudon to write the descriptive portion of the Encyclopaylia of Plants. In the course of his labours on this undertaking, which was completed in 1829, and of which the "botanical merits" are in the preface assigned by the editor to Lindley, he became thoroughly convinced of the superiority of the " natural " system of Jussieu, as distinguished from the "artificial" system of Linnmus followed in the Enc-yclopmdia; the conviction found expression in A Synopsis of British Flora, arranged according to the Xatural Order (1829), and in An Introduction to the Xatural System of Botany (1830). In 1829 Lindley, who since 1822 had been assist-ant secretary to the Horticultural Society, was appointed to the chair of botany in University College, London ; he lectured also on botany from 1831 at the Royal Institution, and from 1835 at the Botanic Gardens, Chelsea. During his professoriate of more than thirty years he- wrote many scientific and popular work's, besides contributing largely to the Botanical Register, of which he was editor for many years, and to the Gardener's Chronicle, in which he had charge of the horticultural department from 1811. He became a fellow of the Royal, Linnean, and Geological Societies, and had the honour of being admitted to a large number of foreign scientific bodies. He resigned his chair in 1860, and died of apoplexy at Turnham Green on November 1, 1865.
Besides those already mentioned, the works of Lindley include An Outline of the First Principles of Horticulture (1S32), An Outline of the Structure and Physiology of Plants (1832), A Natural System of Botany (1836), The Fossil Flora of Great Britain (the joint work of Lindley and Hutton, 1831-37), Flora Medico (1838), The Vegetable Kingdom, (1846), Theory of Horticulture (2d ed., 1855), Folio Orehidaeca (1852), Descriptive Botany (1858), a Ladies' Botany, School Botany, the volume Botany in the Library of Useful Knowledge, and most of the botanical articles in the Penny Cyclopxdia. See BOTANY, vol. iv. p. 81.