Kolar, Or Colar
district pest mysore little hungarian
KOLAR, or COLAR, a district of Mysore state, Southern India, lying between 12° 46' and 13° 36' N. lat., and 78° 5' and 78° 35' E. long. It occupies that portion of the Mysore table-land immediately bordering the Eastern Ghats. The principal watershed lies in the north-west, around the hill of Nandidrng (4810 feet), from which rivers radiate in all directions; and the whole country- is broken by numerous hill ranges. The chief rivers are the Pillar, the South Pinakinf ar Penner, the North Pinakini, and the Papaghni, which are industriously utilized for irrigation by means of anicuts and tanks. The rocks of the district are mostly sy-enite or granite, with a small admixture of mica and felspar. The soil in the valleys consists of a fertile loam; and iu the higher levels sand and gravel are found. The hills are covered with scrub, jungle, and brushwood. The only tract where the trees attain any size is in the neighbourhood of Nandidrug, where an area of 7 square miles has been reserved by the forest department.
The population in 1871 was 618,954, spread over an area of 2577 square miles - Hindus numbering 592,652 ; 111 ohammedans, 25,038 ; Jains, 651 ; and Ch•istians, 613. Four towns contain upwards of 5000 inhabitants, namely, Kolar, 9924 ; Chikballapur, 9882 ; Sialghata, 7009; and Ilosur, 5711. The staple agricultural products are rice, ragi, and joar. Pulses, oil-seeds, vegetables, ami tobacco are also grown on limited areas. Cattle breeding has recently been fostered by the British Government, and large cattle fairs are held annually. The manufactures of the district comprise sugar, silk and cotton weaving, and oil-pressing. iron ore is smelted in considerable quantitios. The principal expoits are sugar, rice, ragi, vegetables, cotton cloth, betel leaf, opium, and gist ; the imports are European piece goods and salt. The total revenue of the district in 1873-74 amounted to £119,446, of which £97,470 was derived from the land and paid by 78,247 proprietors of 678 separate estates. The Govermnent aided and inspected schools in 1874 numbered 233, attended by 5547 pupils ; iu addition there were also 102 unaided schools. The district bears a good reputation for healthiness, the mean annual temperature being 76°, and the average annual rainfall 29'17 inches.
The early history of the district is enshrouded in the usual llindu legends, chiefly localized at the village of Avani, which is still a popular place of pilgrimage, as containing a linga set lip IT' lama himself. The earliest authentic evidence shows that Kolar in primitive times formed part of the kingdom of the Palkivas, a dynasty overthrown by the Cholas, to whom is assigned the foundation of Kolar town. After the Cholas came the Ballala kings, who in their turn gave way to the powerful monarch of Vijayanagar, in the early part of the 14th century. About this period arose the Ganda family, whose chiefs appear to have submitted successively to every conqueror until they were swept away by Ryder Ali. The first Mohammedans to invade this tract were the Bijapur kings., whose general was the Marhatta Shihji, the father of Sivajf the Great. In 1639 Shahji obtained Kolar as a fief, which he transmitted to his son Venkoji or Ekoji, the founder of the Tanjore line. Subsequently Kolar was overrun by the MugInds. In 1761 it was formally ceded by the nizam to Hyde'. Ali, who was a native of the state, having been born at the little village of Budikot ; and after the fall of Tipi. in 1799 it was incorporated in the Hindu state of Mysore. The chief historical interest of modern times centres round the hill fort of Nandidrug (Nundydroog), which was stormed by the British in 1791, after a bombardment of twenty-one days. Kolar, which with the rest of Mysore had been under British administration since 1835, was restored to its native chief in March 1881.
K(JLCSEY, FERENCZ or FRANCIS (1790-1838), a distinguished Hungarian poet, critic, and orator, was born at Szodemeter, in Transylvania, on the 8th of August 1790. His parents both died during his childhood, leaving him to the care of a trusted female servant. At an early age Kolcsey was sent to the Calvinistic school at Debreczen, where he acquired a sound knowledge of the Latin and Greek classics, as also of the leading Hungarian and German poets. In his fifteenth year he made the acquaintance of Kazinczy, and zealously adopted his linguistic reforms. In 1809 Kfflcsey went to Pest with the intention of following the legal profession, and became a " notary to the royal board." The public career of a lawyer, however, proving distasteful to him, he soon left the city, and, secluding himself at Cseke in Szatanar county, devoted his time to testhetical study, poetry, criticism, and the defence of the theories of Kazinczy. Kolcsey's early metrical pieces contributed to the Transylvanian Huseuni did not attract much attention, whilst his severe criticisms of Csokonai, Kis, and especially Berzsenyi, published in 1817, rendered him very unpopular. From 1821 to 1826 he published many separate poems of great beauty in the Aurora, Hebe, Aspasia, and other magazines of polite literature. Having by these means again risen in the estimation of the literary public, he was induced by Paul Szemere to join him in the production of a new periodical, styled E let is Literatura ("Life and Literature "), which appeared from 1826 to 1829, in 4 vols., and gained for Kolcsey the highest reputation as a critical writer. About this time his powers as an orator began to be displayed in his capacity of upper notary to the county of Szatmar. From 1832 to 1835 he sat in the Hungarian diet, where his extreme liberal views and his singular eloquence soon rendered him famous as a parliamentary leader. In the meantime he had not been inactive as a literary savant. Elected on the 17th November 1830 a member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, he took part in its first grand meeting ; in 1832 he delivered his famous oration on Kazinczy, and in 1836 that on his former opponent Daniel Berzsenyi. When in 1838 Baron Wesselenyi was unjustly thrown into prison upon a charge of treason, Kolcsey eloquently though unsuccessfully conducted his defence ; and he died about a week afterwards (24th of August) from internal inflammation. His collected works, in 6 vols., were published at Pest, 1840-48, and his journal of the diet of 1832-36 appeared in 1818. A monument erected to the memory of Kiilcsey was unveiled at Szattuar-Notneti on the 25t11 of September 1861.
See G. Steinaeker, Ungarisclae Lyriker, Leipsic and Pest, 1874 ; F. Toldy, Magyar Kati& elete, 2 vols., Pest, 1871 ; J. Ferenczy and J. Danielik, Ir6k, 2 vols., Pest, 1856-58.
KOLDING, a town in the district of Voile, Denmark, is situated on the east coast of the province of Jutland, on the Koldingfjord, an inlet of the Little Belt. It has some little shipping, but its harbour is not deep. A little to the north-west is the splendid ruin of the royal castle Koldinghuus, formerly called Oerusborg or Arensborg. It was begun by Duke Abel in 1248 ; in 1808 it was burned. The large square tower was built by Christian IV. (15881648), and was surmounted by colossal statues, of which one is still standing. The name of Kolding occurs in the 10th century ; but its earliest known town-rights date from