KIRKWALL, a royal and parliamentary burgh of steamer, 58 north of Wick, and 54 north of Thurso. It that carts and similar vehicles in many places cannot pass the suburbs there are several good villas surrounded by by Bishop Stewart in 1511, and the western extremity of Bishop Maxwell, the predecessor of Bishop Reid, but the larger or tenor bell was recast in 1862. The cathedral contains a number of old monuments. Adjoining it are the ruins of the bishop's palace, where King Haco died in 1263, and also the earl's palace, which after the forfeiture of the earl of Orkney was given to the bishops for their residence. There is a grammar school, which was endowed by Bishop Reid, and also several charitable institutions. The town has no manufactures of importance, and its prosperity depends chiefly on its being the capital and principal port of the islands. It is often touched by ships passing to Norway and the Baltic. The harbour is amply sufficient for the shipping of the port, and a fine iron pier was erected in 1867. There is regular steam communication with Lerwick, and with Leith by Aberdeen and Wick. Kirkwall (a name derived from kirk, church, and vdgr or vaag, bay), was a place of some size when the islands were in the possession of the Norsemen, and by James III. it was created a royal burgh. It unites with the other burghs in the Wick district in returning a member to parliament, The population of the parliamentary burgh in 1881 was 3923.