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CASTILIAN.] SPAIN merits of lost poems of the juglares, the British cycle complicated versification, - love plaints, debates, questions, (Lancelot, Tristram, Merlin, &c.) is represented almost and repartees, motes with their glosas, burlesque and satirical exclusively by works in prose (compare ROMANCE). Those songs, - a poetry wholly "occasional," and which when narratives are known, it is true, only by 15th and 16th separated from its natural environment loses great part of century editions in which they have been more or less its charm. In order to understand and appreciate those modified to suit the taste of the time, but it is impossible pieces they must be read in the collections made by the not to recognize that books such as El Baladro del Sabio poets of the time, and the one must be brought to throw Merlin and La Demanda del Sancto Grial (1515) presup- light on the other. The most celebrated condoner° of the pose a considerable antecedent literature of which they 15th century is that compiled for the amusement of his are only the afterglow. The principal French romances sovereign byAlfonso de Baena (who has not designated him-of the Round Table were translated and imitated in Spain self a Jew, as has been supposed, the word judino attached and in Portugal as early as the first half of the 14th to his name in the preface being nothing but indino); it is, century at least ; of that there is no doubt. And, even so to say, the official collection of the poetic court of John if there was not on this point satisfactory testimony, the IL, although it also contains some pieces by poets of earlier prodigious development in Spanish literature of the caba- date. After Baena's collection may be mentioned the llerias or "book of chivalry," incontrovertibly derived Cancionero de Stultiga, which contains the Castilian poems from fictions of British origin, is proof enough that the of the trobadores who followed Alfonso V. of Aragon to Spaniards have at an early date been familiarized with Naples. Those cancioneros, consisting of the productions this romance from France. The first book which begins of a society, a group, were succeeded by collections of a the series of strictly Spanish caballerias is the Amadis de more general character in which versifiers of very different Gaula (i.e., of Wales, not France). We know the Amadis periods and localities are jumbled together, the pieces only by the version made about 1480 in four books by being classed simply according to their type. The earliest Garci Ordofiez de Montalvo (the oldest edition extant is Cancionero General is that compiled by Juan Fernandez dated 1508), but the work in its original form (three de Constantina, which appears to have issued from the books), already widely distributed and celebrated by Valencia press in the very beginning of the 16th century ; various Castilian poets from about 1350, must have been the second, much better known, was published for the first composed at the latest in the second third of the 14th time at Valencia in 1511 ; its editor was called Fernando century. A few rather vague hints and certain senti- del Castillo. The other poetic school of the 15th century, mental considerations lead one to seek for the unknown which claims to be specially related to the Italians, had as author of the first Amadis in Portugal, where the its leaders Juan de Mena (1411-1456), author of the Coro-romances of the Round Table were even more highly nation and the Labirinto or Las Trecientas (a long poem appreciated than in Spain, and where they have exercised so called because of the number of stanzas which, accord-a deeper influence on the national literature. To Mont- ing to the scheme, were to compose it), and the marquis alvo, however, falls the honour of having preserved the of Santillana, D. Iffigo Lopez de Mendoza (1398-1458), book by republishing it ; he only made the mistake of who in his sonnets was the first to imitate the structure of diluting the original text too much and of adding a the Italian endecasillabo. Along with those two, who may poor continuation, Las Sergas de Esplandian. Allied to be designated poetas, in distinction from the decidores and Montalvo's Amadis with its Esplandian appendage are the the trobadores of the cancioneros, must be ranked Francisco Don, Florisando and the Lisuarte de Credo, the Amadis Imperial, a Genoese by descent, who also helped to de Credo, the Don Florisel de Niquea, kc., which form acclimatize in Spain the forms of Italian poetry. The what Cervantes called the "Amadis sect." Along with marquis of Santillana occupies a considerable place in the the Amadises range the Palmerines, the most celebrated literature of the 15th century, not only by reason of his of which are the Palmerin de Oliva, the Primaleon, and poems, but quite as much if not more through the support the Palmerin de Inglaterra. None of those caballerias he afforded to all the writers of his time, and the impulse inspired by the Amadis were printed or even written before he gave to the study of antiquity and to the labours of the 16th century; and they bear in language and style the translators who at his request turned Virgil, Ovid, Seneca, stamp of that period ; but they cannot be separated from &c., into Castilian. He himself was not acquainted with their mediaeval model, the spirit of which they have pre- Latin ; but the generous efforts he made to stir up his served intact. Among the caballerias we may also class fellow-countrymen to learn it have justly procured him some narratives belonging to the Carlovingian epic, - the the title of father of Spanish humanism. That he had an Histories del Emperador Carlonia,gno y de los Doce Pares, a extensive knowledge of the national literature and of the very popular version still reprinted of the French romance literatures of France and Italy he has shown in the preface of Fierabras, the Espejo de Caballerias, into which has to his works, which is a sort of ars poetica as well as an passed a large part of the Orlando Innamorato of Boiardo, historical exposition of the kinds of poetry cultivated in the the Historia de la Edna Sibilla, &c. Middle Ages by the Spaniards and the neighbouring nations.
Poetry The first half of the 15th century, or, what comes With the exception of the chronicles and some Prose three facts - (1) by the development of a court poetry, Villena, (died 1434) is very clumsy and shows no advance artificial and pretentious; (2) by the influence of Italian on the versions of Latin authors made in the previous literature on Castilian prose and poetry, the imitation of century ; better worth reading is the Trabajos de Hercules, Boccaccio and Dante, especially of the latter, which intro- a whimsical production but with some savour in its style. duced into Spain a liking for allegory ; and (3) by more A curious and amusing book, full of details about Spanish assiduous intercourse with antiquity - a fuller understand- manners, is the an.baelto of the archpriest of Talavera, ing of the Latin writers who had been brought to the front Alonso Martinez de Toledo, chaplain to King John II. ; by the Italian renaissance. After the example of the Pro- the Corbacho belongs to the numerous family of satires vencals, whose literary doctrines had made their way into against women, and its title (" The Lash " or "Whip ") Castile through Portugal and Catalonia, poetry is now borrowed from a work of Boccaccio's, with which it has styled the arte de trobar. The arte de trobar is strictly otherwise nothing akin, correctly indicates that he has " court" poetry, which consists in short pieces of rather not spared them.
Dra- The ancient liturgical Spanish theatre is known to us regulations of the code of the Siete Para(las (compiled between 1252 and 1257) prove that this theatre existed, and that at the great festivals, such as Christmas, Epiphany, and Easter, dramatic representations were given in church. These representations, originally a mere commentary on the liturgy, grew more complicated in course of time ; they were gradually adulterated with buffoonery, which frequently brought down the censure of the clergy. Alfonso the Wise even thought it necessary formally to forbid the " clerks" playing juegos de escarnios, and permitted in the sanctuary only dramas destined to commemorate the principal episodes of the life of Christ. Of all the church festivals, the most popular in Spain was that of Corpus Christi, instituted by Urban IV. in 1264. At an early date was introduced the custom of accompanying the celebration of this festival with dramatic representations intended to explain to the faithful the Eucharistic mystery. Those dramas, called autos sacramentales, acquired more and more importance; in the 17th century, with Calderon, they become grand allegorical pieces, regular theological dissertations in the form of dramas. To the auto sacramental corresponds the auto al nacimiento, or drama of the Nativity. The secular theatre is in Spain as elsewhere a product of the religious theatre. Expelled from the church, the juegos de escarnios took possession of the public squares and there obtained a free development; they cease to be a mere travesty of dogma to become a separate type, a drama whose movement is no longer determined by the liturgy, and whose actors are borrowed from real life in Spanish society. This new theatre starts about the close of the 15th century with the little pastoral pieces of Juan del Encina (died 1534), which, after Virgil's example, he calls eglogas. Genuine shepherds, clumsy, rude, and long-haired (melenudos), arc the interlocutors of those bucolics, into which are also sometimes introduced students, and even, by Lucas Fernandez, a contemporary and pupil of Encina's, gentlemen (caballeros) and soldiers. A book which, strictly speaking, does not belong to the theatre, the Tragicomedia de Calixto y Melibea, by Fernando de Rojas, much better known as La Celestina, and dating from about 1492, caused the new theatre, still so childish in the attempts of the school of Encina, to make a gigantic step onwards. The history of two lovers, who are brought together by a go-between (Celestine), and who after various vicissitudes ultimately commit suicide, - this astonishing novel taught the Spaniards the art of dialogue, and for the first time exhibited persons of all classes of society (particularly the lowest) speaking in harmony with their natural surroundings, thinking and acting in accordance with their condition of life. The progress caused by the Celestina may be estimated by means of the Propaladia of Bartolomb Torres Naharro (Naples, 1517), a collection of pieces represented at Rome in presence of Leo X. and distributed by their author into two groups - comedias a noticia, those treating of things really known and seen, and comedias a fantasia, those bringing fictions on the stage, though it may be with the appearance of reality. The most interesting, if not the best composed, are the comedic soldadesca, depicting to the life the Spanish man-at-arms of the time, and the comedic tinelaria, a picture of the manners of the menials of the pontifical court. Torres Naharro is the first 'Spaniard who borrowed from France the division of the play into "days " (jornadas); shortly after Naharro we find the comedy of manners in Lope de Rueda, goldbeater of Seville (died about 156G), whose dramatic work is composed of regular comedies constructed on the model of Naharro and Italian authors of the beginning of the 16th century, and also of little pieces intended for performance in the intervals between the larger plays (entremeses and pesos), some of which, such as El Convidado, El Ruffian Cobarde, Las Aceitunas, are storehouses of sprightliness and wit. Some of Naharro's and especially of Rueda's pieces have already the character of the comedy of intrigue, which is emphatically the type of the classic stage. But to reach Lope de Vega the Spanish stage bad to be enlarged in relation to national history. A poet of Seville, Juan de la Cueva (born about 1550), first brought on the boards subjects such as the exploits of the Cid, Bernardo del Carpio, and others, which had previously been treated of only in the "romances." To a poet called Berrio, of whose work nothing has been preserved, are attributed the comedias of Moors and Christians, in which were represented famous episodes of the age-long struggle against the infidel. And it is at this period that Cervantes (1585) experimented in the dramatic line ; in his Tratos de Argel he gives us a picture of galley-life, painful recollections of his long captivity in Algiers. There is no need to linger over certain attempts at tragedy of the ancient type by Geronimo Bermudez (born 1530), Cristobal de Virues (born about 1550), Lupercio Leonardo Argensola (1562-1613), the., the only successful specimen of which is the ilrumancia of Cervantes; these works in fact, cold and manneristic, mere exercises in style and versification, remained without influence on the development of the Spanish stage. The pre-classic period of this stage is, as regards dramatic form, one of indecision. Some write in prose, like Rueda ; others, like Naharro, show a preference for the redondillas of popular poetry ; and there are those again who, to elevate the style of the stage, versify in hendecasyllabics. Hesitation is also evident as to the mode of dividing the drama. At first a division into five acts, after the manner of the ancients, is adopted, and this is still followed by Cervantes in his first pieces; then Juan de la Cueva reduced the five acts to four, and in this he is imitated by most of the poets to the close of the 16th century (Lope de Vega himself in his youth composed pieces in four acts). It was only at this time that the custom which is still maintained of dividing all dramatic works into three acts or days was introduced, - exception of course being made of short pieces like the loa (prologue), the entremes, the paso, the bade (different kinds of entr'acte).
The golden age of Spanish literature, as it is called, Classic belongs to the 16th and the 17th centuries, extending age - approximately from 1550 to 1650. Previous to the reign 16tthh cen of the Catholic sovereigns there exists, strictly speak- tunies. ing, only a Castilian literature, not very self-reliant and Lyric poetry, especially that of the highest order, is Lyric always inspired by the Italian masters. An irresistible poetry.
tendency leads the Spanish poets to rhyme in hendecasyllabics - as the marquis of Santillana had formerly done, though his attempts had fallen into oblivion - and to group their verses in tercets, octaves, sonnets, and canciones (canzoni). Garcilaso de is Vega (1503-1536), Juan Boscan (1493–c. 1550), and Diego de Mendoza (15031575) are the recognized chiefs of the school al italico modo, and to them belongs the honour of having successfully transplanted to Spain those different forms of verse, and of having enriched and improved the poetic language of their country. The few uncouthnesses of which Mendoza and Boscan more especially are guilty (such as certain faults of rhythmic accentuation) were corrected by their disciples Gutierre de Cetina, Gregorio Silvestre, Hernando do Acura, by the poets of the so-called school of Seville, headed by Fernando de Herrera (died 1597), and also by those of the rival school of Salamanca, rendered famous mainly by the inspired poetry of Fr. Luis de Leon (1528-1591). Against those innovators the poets faithful to the old Castilian manner, the rhymers of reclondillas and romances, hold their own ; under the direction of Cristobal de Castillejo (1556) they carry on a fierce war of the pen against the " Petrarchists." But by the last third of the 16th century the triumph of the new Italian school is assured, and no one any longer thinks of reproaching it for its foreign flavour. Only a sort of schism is effected from that period between the higher poetry and the other varieties : the former employs only the hendecasyllabic and the heptasyllabic (quebrado), while the popular poets, or those who affect a more familiar tone, preserve the national metres. Almost all the poets, however, of the 16th and Pith centuries have tried their powers in both kinds of versification, using them in turn according to the nature of their subjects. Thus Lope de Vega, first of all, who wrote La Jerusalem Conquistada (1609), La Dragontea (1602), La Herntosura de Angelica (1602), in Italian verses and in octaves, composed his long narrative poem on Isidore, the husbandman patron of Madrid (1599), in quintils of octosyllabic verse, not to mention a great number of "romances." As regards this last form, previously disdained or almost so by artistic poets, Lope de Vega gave it a prestige that brought it into favour with the literates of the court. A host of poets were pleased to recast the old " romances " or to compose new ones. The 17th century, it may be said, is characterized by a regular surfeit of lyric poetry, to which the establishment of various literary academies in the Italian style contributed not a little. Of this enormous mass of verses of all sorts and sizes very little still keeps afloat : the names of three-fourths of the versifiers must be forgotten, and in addition to those already cited it will be sufficient to mention Luis de Gongora (1561-1626) and Francisco de Quevedo Villegas (1580-1645). Gongora is especially famous as the founder of the " cultist " school, as the introducer into Castilian poetry of a flowery, bombastic, and periphrastic style, characterized by sonorous vocables and artificial arrangements of phrase. The Spaniards have given the name of cu/to to this pompous and manneristic style, with its system of inversions based on Latin syntax. The Soledades of Gongora are the monument par excellence of Spanish mannerism, which made numerous victims and inflicted on the poetry of the Peninsula irreparable injury. But Gongora, a poet of really great powers, had started better, and as often as he cares to forget about being sonorous and affected, and is contented to rhyme romances, he finds true poetic accents, ingenious ideas, and felicitous expressions. Quevedo, much greater, moreover, in his prose works than in his verse, displays real power only in satire, epigram, and parody. There are in some of his serious pieces the stuff of a Juvenal, and his satiric and burlesque romances, of which several are even written in slang (germania), are in their way little masterpieces. Another commonplace of Spanish poetry at this period was epic poetry after the style of Tasso's Gerusalemme. None of those interminable and prosaic compositions in octavas reales come near their model ; none of them could even be compared in style, elevation of thought, and beauty of imagery to the Lusiadas. They are in reality only rhymed chronicles, and consequently, when the author happens to have taken part in the events he narrates, they have a genuine historical interest. Such is the case with the Araucana of Alonso de Ercilla (1533-1594), of which it may be said that it was written less with a pen than with a pike. In burlesque poetry the Spaniards have been rather more successful : La Gatomaquia of Lope de Vega and La .3fosquea of Villaviciosa (died 1658) are somewhat agreeable pieces of fun.
The departments of imaginative literature in which the Rogenius of the new Spanish nation revealed itself with most mane". vigour and originality are the novela and the drama. By novela must be understood the novel of manners, called picaresca (from picaro, a rogue or "picaroon ") because of the social status of the heroes of those fictions ; and this kind of novel is quite an invention of the Spaniards. Their pastoral romance, on the other hand - the best known examples of which are the Diana Enamorada of Jorge de Montemayor (died 1561), continued by Alonso Perez and Gaspar Gil Polo, the Galatea of Cervantes, and the Arcadia of Lope de Vega, as well as their novel of adventure, started by Cervantes in his Xovelas Ejemplares (1613), and cultivated after him by a host of writers - is directly derived from Italy. The Arcadia of Sannazaro is the source of the Diana and of all its imitations, just as the Italian novellieri alone are the masters of the Spanish novelistas of the 17th century. The picaresque novel starts in the middle of the 16th century with the Vida de Lazarillo de Tormes, sus Fortunas y Adversidades (1554), the work of a very bold intellect whose personality unfortunately remains unknown, there being no satisfactory reason for assigning this little book, which is as remarkable for the vigour of its satire as for the sobriety and firmness of its style, to Diego Hurtado de Mendoza. A supplement to the adventures of Lazarillo appeared at Antwerp in 1555 ; it is probably, however, not the production of the author of the original romance. The impetus was given, and the success of Lazarillo was so great that imitators soon appeared. In 1599 Mateo Aleman published, under the title of Atalaya de la Vida Humana, the first part of the adventures of another picaroon, Guzman de Alfarache; and, as he was in no hurry to finish this narrative, another writer, jealous of his success, took possession of it and issued in 1603, under the pseudonym of Mateo Luxan, a continuation of the first Guzman. Aleman, not to be thwarted, resumed his pen, and published the second part of his romance in 1605. Quite unlike that of the Lazarillo, the style of Mateo Aleman of Seville is eloquent, full, with long and learned periods, sometimes diffuse. Nothing could be more extravagant and more obscure than the history of Justina the beggar woman (La Picara Justina) by Francisco Lopez de Ubeda (1605), an assumed name which concealed the person of the Dominican Andres Perez de Leon. The other picaresque romances areAlonso .3Iozo de muchos Amos, by Geronimo de Alcala (two parts, 1624 and 1626) ; the Historia y Vida del Gran Tacago Pablo de Segovia (1626), in which Quevedo has made his most brilliant display of style and wit ; the Gardu'iia de Sevilla (1634) of Alonso de Castillo Solorzano ; La Vida y Hechos de Estebanillo Gonzalez (1646), described as compuesto por el mesmo, but an Esteban Gonzalez is unknown in the literary history of the 17th century.
By degrees the picaresque romance was combined with the novel of Italian origin and gave rise to a new type, - half novel of manners, half romance of adventure, - of which the characteristic example appears to be the Relacion de la Vida y Aventuras del E scudero Marcos de Obregon (1618), by Vicente Espinel, one of the most genial and best written works of the 17th century. To the same class belong almost all the novels of Alonso Gerbnimo de Salas Barbadillo, such as La Ingeniosa Helena, Don Diego de Noche, El Caballero puntual, &c.; Luiz Velez de Guevara's Diablo Cojuelo (1641), the model of Lesage's Diable Boiteux ; and Francisco Santos's highly popular pictures of life in Madrid, Dia y Noche de Madrid (1663), Periquillo, el de las Gallineras, &c. On the contrary, the novels of Tirso de Molina (Los Cigarrales de Toledo, 1624), Perez de Montalban (Para Todos, 1632), Maria de Zayas (Xovelas, 1637), are more in the manner of the Novelas Ejemplares of Cervantes, and consequently of the Italian type. Among the so-called historical romances oue only deserves to be mentioned, - the Guerras Civiles de Granada by Gines Perez de Hita, which deals with the last years of the kingdom of Granada and the insurrection of the Moors of the Alpujarras in the time of Philip II. Don Quixote, the masterpiece of Miguel Cervantes de Saavedra (1547-1616), is too great a work to be treated along with others ; and, besides, it does not fall strictly within the limits of any of the classes just mentioned. If it has to be defined, it may be described as the social romance of 16th and 17th century Spain. Cervantes undoubtedly owed much to his predecessors, notably to the picaresque romancers, but he considerably enlarged the scope of the type, and, what had as yet been done by no one, supported the framework of the story by a lofty moral idea. His main purpose was, as we are beginning to realize, not to turn into ridicule the books of chivalry, which were already out of fashion by his time, but to show by an example pushed to absurdity the danger of hidalgism, of all those deplorable prejudices of pure blood and noble race with which three-fourths of the nation were imbued, and which, by the scorn of all useful labour which they involved, were destined to bring Spain to ruin. The lesson is all the more effective as his hidalgo, although ridiculous, was not put beyond the pale of the reader's sympathy, and the author condemns only the exaggeration of the chivalrous spirit, and not true courage and devotion when these virtues have a serious object. The same thing happened to Don Quixote which had happened to Guzman de Alfarache. After the publication of the first part (1605), Cervantes allowed his pen to lie too long idle ; and so it occurred to some one to anticipate him in the glory of completing the story of the heroic deeds of the knight of La Mancha. In 1614 a second part of the adventures of Don Quixote made its appearance - the work of a certain Avellaneda, a pseudonym under which people have sought to recognize the inquisitor Luis de Aliaga. Cervantes was thus roused from inactivity, and the following year gave to the world the true second part, which soon effaced the bad impression produced by Avellaneda's heavy and exaggerated imitation.
Drama The stage in the 17th century in some measure took of 17th the place of the romances of the previous age ; it is, as it were, the medium of all the memories, all the passions, and all the aspirations of the Spanish people. Its style, being that of the popular poetry, made it accessible to the most illiterate classes, and gave it an immense range of subject. From the books of the Bible, the acts of the martyrs, national traditions, the chronicles of Castile and Aragon, and foreign histories and novels, down to the daily incidents of contemporary Spanish life, the escapades and nightly brawls of students, the gallantries of the Calle Mayor and the Prado of Madrid, balcony escalades, sword thrusts and dagger strokes, duels and murders, fathers befoolcd, jealous ladies, pilfering and cowardly valets, inquisitive and sprightly waiting-maids, sly and tricky peasants, fresh country girls, - all are turned to dramatic account. The enormous mass of plays with which the literature of this period is inundated may be divided into two great classes - asecular and a religious, the latter again subdivided into (1) the liturgical play, i.e., the auto either sacramental or al nacimiento, and (2) the comedia diving and the comedia de santos, which have no liturgical element and differ from a secular play only in the fact that the subject is religious, and frequently, as one of the names indicates, derived from the history of a saint. .1u the secular drama, classification might be carried almost to any extent if the nature of the subject be taken as the criterion. It will be sufficient to distinguish the comedia (i.e., any tragic or comic piece in three acts) according to the social types brought on the stage, the equipment of the actors, and the artifices resorted to in the representation. We have (1) the comedia de capa y espada, which represents any everyday incident, the actors belonging to the middle class, simple caballeros, and consequently wearing the garb of ordinary town-life, of which the chief items were the cloak and the sword, and (2) the comedia de teatro or de ruido, or again de tranzoya or de aparencias (i.e., the theatrical, spectacular, or scenic play), whicli prefers kings and princes for its dramatis persona and makes a great display of mechanical devices and decorations. Besides the comedia, the classic stage has also a series of little pieces subsidiary to the play proper ; the loa or prologue, the entremes, a kind of interlude which afterwards developed into the saynete, the baile, or ballet accompanied with singing, and the zarzuela, a sort of operetta thus named after the royal residence of La Zarzuela, where the kings of Spain had a theatre. As to the dramatic poets of the golden age, even more numerous than the lyric poets and the romancers, it is rather difficult to group them. All are more or less pupils or imitators of the great chief of the new school, Lope Felix de Vega Carpio (1562-1635) ; everything has ultimately to be brought back to him whom the Spaniards call the "monster of Nature." Among Lope's contemporaries, only a few poets of Valencia (Gaspar de Aguilar, Francisco Tarrega, Guillem de Castro (1569-1631), the author of the Hocedades del Cid (from which Corneille derived his inspiration), formed a small school, as it were, less subject to the master than that of Madrid, which was bound to merit the applause of the public by copying as exactly as possible the manlier of the great initiator. Lope left his mark on all varieties of the comedia, but did not attain to equal excellence in all. He was especially successful in the comedy of intrigue (enredo), of the capa y espada class, and in dramas whose subjects are derived from national history. His great and most incontestable merit is to have given the Spanish stage a range and scope of which it had not been previously thought capable, and of having taught his contemporaries to find dramatic situations and to carry on a plot. It is true he wrote nothing perfect : his prodigious productiveness and facility allowed him no time to mature anything ; he wrote negligently, and, besides, he considered the stage an inferior department, good for the vulgo, and consequently did not judge it worthy of the same regard as lyric or narrative poetry borrowed from the Italians. Lope's first pupils exaggerated some of his defects, but, at the same time, each, according to his own taste, widened the scope of the comedia. Antonio Mira de Amescua and Luis Velez de Guevara (died 1644) were successful especially in tragic histories and comedies divinas. Fr. Gabriel Tellcz (1570– 1648), better known under the pseudonym of Tirso de Molina, one of the most flexible, ingenious, and inventive of the dramatists, displayed no less talent in the comedy of contemporary manners than in historical drama. El Burlador de Sevilla (Don Juan), the most celebrated of his plays since the Italians and the French have taken possession of the subject, is reckoned his masterpiece ; but he showed himself a much greater poet in El Vergonzoso en Palacio, Don Gil de las Calzas Verdes, Marta la .Pia-dose. Finally Juan Ruiz de Alarcon (died 1639), the most serious and most observant of Spanish dramatic poets, successfully achieved the comedy of character in La Verdad Sospechosa, closely followed by Corneille in his dllenteur. The remaining play-writers hardly did anything but increase the number of the comedies; they added nothing to the real elements of the drama. The second epoch of the classical drama is represented mainly by Pedro Calderon de la Barca (1600-1681), the Spanish dramatist who has obtained most celebrity abroad, where his pieces have been studied and admired (perhaps extravagantly) by certain critics who have not feared to rank him with Shakespeare. It is Calderon who first made honour, or more correctly the point of honour, an essential motive in the conduct of his personages (e.g., El 2Iedico de su lIonra); it is he also who made the comedia de cepa y espada uniform even to monotony, and gave the comic "part" of the gracioso (confidential valet of the caballero) a fixity which it never previously possessed. There is depth and poetry in Calderon, but vagueness also and much bad taste. His most philosophic drama, La Vida es Sueno, is a bold and sublime idea, but indistinct and feebly worked out ; that his autos sacramentales give evidence of extensive theological knowledge is all that can be said in their favour. Calderon was imitated, as Lope had been, by exaggerating his manner and perverting his excellencies. Two poets only of the second half of the 17th century deserve to be cited along with him - Francisco de Rojas, author of the fine historic play Del Rey abajo ninguno, and Agustin Moreto (1618-1662), author of some pleasant comedies. Among those who worked in secondary forms mention must be made of Luis Quinones de Benavente, a skilful writer of entrenteses, and in fact the greatest master of the form.
History. A new manner of writing appears with the revival of learning : the purely objective style of the old chroniclers, with their tagging on of one fact after another, without showing the logical connexion or expressing any opinion on men or things, begins to be thought puerile. An attempt is now made to treat the history of Spain in the manner of Livy, Sallust, Tacitus, whose methods of narration were directly adopted. The 16th century, however, still presents certain chroniclers of the mediaeval type, with more erudition, precision, and a beginning of the critical element. La Cronica General de Espana by Ambrosio de Morales, the Compendio Historial of Esteban de Garibai, the Historia General de las Indicts Occidentales by Antonio de:Herrera, are, as far as the style is concerned, continuations of the last chronicles of Castile. Geronimo de Zurita (1512-1580) is emphatically a scholar ; no one in the 16th century knew as he did how to turn to account documents and records for the purpose of completing and correcting the narratives of the ancient chronicles ; his Anales de la Corona de Aragon is a book of great value, though written in a painful style. With Juan de Mariana (1536-1623) history ceases to be a mere compilation of facts or a work of pure erudition, in order to•become a work of art and of thought. The IIistoria de Espana by the celebrated Jesuit, at first written in Latin in the interest especially of foreigners, was afterwards rendered by its author into excellent Castilian ; as a general survey of its history, well-planned, well written, and well thought out, Spain possesses nothing that can be compared. with it ; it is eminently a national work, steeped throughout in the prejudices of the race. Various works of less extent, - accounts of more or less important episodes in the history of Spain, - may take their place beside Mariana's great monument : for example, the Guerra de Granada by Diego Hurtado de Mendoza (a history of the revolt of the Moors of the Alpujarras under Philip II.), written about 1572, immediately after the events, but not published till about thirty years later, after the author's death ; the narrative of the expedition of the Catalans in the Morea in the 14th century by Francisco de Moncada (died 1635); that of the revolt of the same Catalans under the reign of Philip IV. by Francisco Manuel de Melo (died 1666), a Portuguese by birth ; and that of the conquest of Mexico by Antonio de Solis. Each of these writers has been more or less inspired by some Latin author, one preferring Livy, another Sallust, kc. These imitations, it must be admitted, have something artificial and stilted, which in the long run proves as fatiguing as the unskilfulness and heaviness of the chroniclers of the Middle Ages. On the other hand, the historians of the wars of Flanders, such as Carlos Coloma, Bernardino de Mendoza, Alonso Vazquez, Francisco Verdugo, arc less refined, and for that very reason are more vivid and more thoroughly interest us in that struggle of the two races, so foreign to each other and of such different genius. As for the accounts of the trans-Atlantic discoveries and conquests, they are of two kinds, - either (1) memoirs of the actors or witnesses of those great dramas, as, e.g., the Historia Vercladere de la Conquista de la Kuerct Espana by Bernal Diaz del Castillo, one of the companions of Cortes, and the Historia de las Indicts by P. Bartolome de las Casas, the apostle of the Indians ; or (2) works by professional writers, such as Francisco Lopez de Gomara, - official historiographers who wrote in Spain on information sent to them from the newly-discovered lands.
Letter writers, a rather numerous body in Spanish Letter literature, are nearly related to the historians ; in fact, writers. letters written to be read by others than the persons addressed, or in any case revised afterwards, are only another method, a little more familiar, of writing history. Fernando del Pulgar appended to his Clctros Varones a series of letters on the affairs of his time ; and at the commencement of the 16th century Antonio de Guevara (died 1545) collected, under the title of Epistolas Families-es, his correspondence with his contemporaries, which throws a great light on the early part of the reign of Charles V., although it must be used with caution because of the numerous rifacimentos it has undergone. A celebrated victim of Philip II., Antonio Perez (died 1611), revenged himself on his master by relating in innumerable letters, addressed during his exile to his friends and protectors, all the incidents of his disgrace, and by selling to the ministers of France and England the secrets of the Spanish policy in which be had a hand ; some of these letters are little masterpieces of sprightliness and gallantry.
Philosophy is rather poorly represented in the 16th and Philolith centuries in the literature of the vernacular. The sophy. greater number of the Spanish thinkers of this epoch, whatever the school to which they belonged, - scholastic, Platonic, Aristotelian, or independent, - wrote in Latin. Ascetic and mystical authors alone made use of the vulgar 3fystitongue for the readier diffusion of their doctrine among min. the illiterate, from whose ranks a good number of their disciples were recruited. Fr. Luis de Granada (died 1588) the great preacher, Juan de la Cruz (1542-1591), Fr. Luis de Leon (1528-1598); Teresa de Jesus (1515– 1582), and Malon de Chaide are the brighter lights of this class of writers. Some of their books, like the attic( de Pecadores of Fr. Luis de Granada, the Confessions of St Teresa, Malon de Chaide's Conversion of the Magdalen, have obtained a brilliant and lasting success beyond the limits of the Peninsula, and have not been without some influence on the development of mysticism in France. The Spanish mystics are not only remarkable for the depth or subtlety of their thoughts and the intensity of the divine love with which they are inspired ; many of them are masters of style ; some, like Juan de la Cruz, have composed verses which rank with the most delicate in the language. A notable fact is that those men who Moralists. are regarded as illuminati profess the most practical ideas in the matter of morality. Nothing is more sensible, nothing less ecstatic, than the manual of domestic economy by Fr. Luis de Leon - La Perfecta Casada. Lay moralists are very numerous in the 1Gth and 17th centuries. Some write long and heavy treatises on the art of governing, the education of princes, the duties of subjects, AT. Pedro Fernandez de Navarrete's Conservation de Monarquias, Diego de Saavedra Faxardo's Idea de un Principe Cristiana Quevedo's La Politica de Dios y Gobierno de Cristo, give a correct idea of the ability which the Spaniards have displayed in this kind of didactic and preceptorial literature, - ability of no high order, for the Spaniard, when he means to teach and work out a doctrine, loses himself in distinctions and rapidly becomes diffuse, pedantic, and obscure. But there is a kind of morality in which he indubitably excels, namely, in social satire, which, under all its forms, - dialogue and dream in the style of Lucian, epistle after the manner of Juvenal, or pamphlet, - has produced several masterpieces and a host of ingenious, caustic, and amusing compositions. Juan de Valdes, the most celebrated of the Spanish Protestants, led the way by his Dialog° de Mercurio y Caron, where all the great political and religious questious of the first half of the 16th century are discussed and resolved with admirable vigour and freedom. The king in the department of social satire, as in those of literary and political satire, is Quevedo. Nothing escapes his scrutinizing spirit and pitiless irony. All the vices of the society of his time are, in his Suettos and many other little pamphlets, remorselessly placed in the pillory and cruelly cut to pieces. While this great satirist, in philosophy a disciple of Seneca, imitates his master even in his style of writing, he is none the less one of the most vigorous and original writers of the 17th century. The only serious defect in his style is that it is too full, not of figures and epithets, but of thoughts. His phrases are of set purpose charged with a double meaning, and we are never sure on reading whether we have taken in all that the author meant to convey. Conceptism is the name that has been given to this refinement of thought, which was doomed in time to fall into the ambiguous and equivocal ; it must not be confounded with the cultism of Gengora, the artifice of which lies solely in the choice and arrangement of words. This new school, of which Quevedo may be regarded as the founder, had its Boileau in the person of Baltasar Gracian, who in 1642 published his Agudeza y Arte de Ingenio, in which all the subtleties of conceptism are very exactly reduced to a code. Gracian, who had the gift of sententious moralizing rather than of satire, produced in his Criticon animated pictures of the society of his own day, while he also displayed much ingenuity in little collections of political and moral aphorisms which have procured him a great reputation abroad, - El Heroe, El Politico Fernando el Catolico, Oraculo Manual y Arte de Prudencia.
18th Spanish thought as well as public spirit and all other century. forms of national activity began to decline towards the close of the 17th century. The advent of the house of Bourbon, and the increasing invasion of French influence in the domain of politics as well as in literature and science, confirmed this decay by rendering abortive the efforts of a few writers who had remained faithful to the pure Spanish tradition. In the hands of the second-rate imitators of Calderon the stage sank ever lower and lower ; lyric poetry, already compromised by the pomp and galimatias of Gengora, was abandoned to wretched rhymsters, who tried without success to make up by extravagance of style for meanness of thought. In a word, everything was suffering from anaemia. The first symptom; not of a revival, but of a certain resumption of intellectual production appear in the department of linguistic study. In 1714 there was created, on the model of the French academies, La Real Academia Espaiiola, intended to maintain the purity of the language and to correct its abuses. This Academy set itself at once to work, and in 1726 was able to commence the publication of its dictionary in six volumes folio, the best title of this association to the gratitude of men of letters. The Gramatica de la Lengua Castellana, drawn up by the Academy, did not appear till 1771. For the new ideas which were introduced into Spain as the result of more intimate relations with France, and which were in many cases repugnant to a nation for two centuries accustomed to live a self-contained life, it was necessary that fully sanctioned patrons should be found. D. Ignacio de Luzan, well read in the literatures of Italy and France, a disciple of Boileau and the French rhetoricians, yet not without some originality of his own, undertook in his Poetica (1737) to expound to his fellow-countrymen the rules of the new school, and, above all, the principle of the famous " unities " accepted by the French stage from Corneille's day onward. What Luzan had done for letters, Benito Feyjoo (1676-1764), a Benedictine of good sense and great learning, did for the sciences. His Teatro Critico (1726-1729) and Cartas Eraditas y Curiosas (1742-1760), collections of dissertations in almost every department of human knowledge, introduced the Spaniards to the leading scientific discoveries of foreign countries, and helped to deliver them from many superstitions and absurd prejudices. The study of the ancient classics and the department of learned research in the domain of national histories and literatures had an eminent representative in Gregorio Mayans y Siscar (died 1782), who worthily carried on the great traditions of the renaissance; besides publishing good editions of old Spanish authors, he gave to the world in 1757 a Retorica which is still worth consulting and a number of learned memoirs. What may be called the litterature d'agrement did not recover much lost ground ; it would seem as if the vein had been exhausted. Something of the old Romance, picaresque novel came to life again in the Ilistoria del Famoso Predicador Fray Gerundio de Campazas of the Jesuit Jose Francisco de Isla, a biographical romance which is also and above all - to the detriment, it is true, of the interest of the narrative - a satire on the follies of the preachers of the day ; the history of Fray Gerundio is merely a pretext, as it were, for displaying and holding up to ridicule the eloquence of the pulpit at the sorry pass to which it had then been brought by the ignorance and bad taste of the Spanish clergy. Isla is known also by his translation of Gil Bias, a work which he professed to restore to his native country, trying to make out - unsuccessfully, of course - that Le Sage had no other merit than that of rendering it into French. The lyric poetry of this period is very pale and colourless Poetry when compared with its dazzling splendour in the preceding century. Nevertheless one or two poets can be named who were possessed of refinement of taste, and whose collections of verse, though wanting in genuine inspiration, at least show respect for the language and will always meet with some appreciation. At the head of the new school is Juan Menendez Valdes (1754-1817), and with his are associated the names of P. Diego Gonzales (1733- 1794), Jose Iglesias de la Casa (1748-1791), known especially by his letrillas, Nicasio Alvarez de Cienfuegos (1764-1809), and some others. Among the verse writers of the 18th century who produced odes and didactic poetry it is only necessary to mention Leandro Fernandez de Moratin (1760-1828) and Manuel Jose Quintana (1772-1857), but the latter belongs rather to the present century, during the first half of which he published his most important works. The poverty of the period in lyric poetry is even exceeded by that of the stage. Here no kind of comedy or tragical drama arose to take the place of the ancient comedic, whose platitudes and absurdities of thought and expression had ended by disgusting even the least exacting portion of the public. The attempt was indeed made to introduce the comedy and the tragedy of France, but the stiff and pedantic adaptations of such writers as Agustin de Montiano y Luyando (1697-1764), Tomas de Iriarte (1750-1791), Garcia de la Huerta, and the well-known economist Gaspar de Jovellanos (17441811) were unable to interest the great mass of playgoers. The only one who was really successful in composing on the French pattern some pleasant comedies, which owe much of their charm to the great purity of the language in which they are written, is Leandro Fernandez de Moratin ; his best pieces are La Nueva Comedic, a parody on the extravagant work of Cornelia, a playwright of the period, El Viejo y la Nifia, El Baron, and particularly El Si de las Ninas. It has to be added that the saynete was cultivated in the 18th century by one writer of genuine talent, Ramon de la Cruz ; nothing helps us better to an acquaintance with the curious Spanish society of the reign of Charles IV. than the intermezzos of this genial and light-hearted author.
19th The terrible struggle of the War of Independence century. (1808-1814), which was destined to have such important consequences in the world of politics, did not exert any immediate influence on the literature of Spain. One might have expected as a consequence of the rising of the whole nation against Napoleon that Spanish writers would have given up seeking their inspiration from those of France, and would have tried to resume the national traditions which had been broken at the end of the 17th century. But nothing of the sort occurred. Not only the afrancesados (as those were called who had accepted the new regime), but also the most ardent partisans of the patriotic cause, continued in literature to be the submissive disciples of France. Quintana, who in his inflammatory odes preached to his compatriots the duty of resistance and revenge, has nothing of the innovator about him ; by his education and by his literary doctrines he remains a man of the 18th century. The same may be said of Francisco Martinez de la Rosa (1789-1848), who, however, from his intercourse with Horace, whom he translated with skill into good Castilian verse, had a greater independence of spirit and a more highly trained and classical taste. And, when romanticism begins to find its way into Spain and to enter into conflict with the spirit and habits of the 18th century, it is still to France that the poets and prose writers of the new school turn, much more than either to England or to Germany. The first decidedly romantic poet of the generation which flourished about 1830 was the duke of Rivas, Angel de Saavedra (1791-1856); no one succeeded better in reconciling the genius of Spain and the tendencies of modern poetry ; his epic poem El Moro Esposito and his drama of Don Alvaro Fuerza del Sino belong as much to the old romances and old theatre of Spain as to the romantic spirit of 1830. On the other hand, Jose de Espronceda (1808-1842), who has sometimes been called the Spanish Musset, savours much less of the soil than the duke of Rivas ; he is a quite cosmopolitan romanticist of the school of Byron and the French imitators of Byron ; an exclusively lyric poet, he did not live long enough to give full proof of his genius, but what he has left is certainly exquisite. Jose Zorrilla (born 1817) has a more flexible and exuberant but much more unequal talent than Espronceda, and if the latter has written too little it cannot but be regretted that the former should have produced too much ; nevertheless, among a multitude of hasty performances, brought out before they had been matured, his Don Juan Tenorio, a new and fantastic version of the legend treated by Tirso de Molina and Moliere, will always remain as one of the most curious specimens of Spanish romanticism. In the dramatic literature of this period it is noticeable that the tragedy more than the comedy is modelled on the examples furnished by the French drama of the Restoration ; thus, if we leave out of account the play of Garcia Gutierrez (born 1813) entitled El Trovador, which inspired the well-known opera of Verdi, and Los Amantes de Teruel of Juan Eugenio Hartzenbusch (born 1806), and a few others, all the dramatic work belonging to this date recalls more or less the manner of the professional playwrights of the boulevard theatres, while on the other hand the comedy of manners still preserves a certain originality and a genuine local colour. Manuel Breton de los Herreros (1796-1873), who wrote as many as a hundred comedies, some of them of the first order after their kind, apart from the fact of their being -Written in language of great excellence, adheres with great fidelity to the tradition of the 17th century ; he is the last of those writers who have preserved the feeling of the ancient comedia. One prose writer of the highest talent must be mentioned along with Espronceda, with whom he has in the moral aspect several features in common, - namely, D. Jose de Larra (1809-1837), so famous by his pseudonym of "Figaro," with which he signed the greater number of his works. Caustic in temper, of a keenly observant spirit, remarkably sober and clear as a writer, he was specially successful in the political pamphlet, the article d'actualites; to this category belong his Cartas de un Pobrecito liablador, in which he ridicules without pity the vices and oddities of his contemporaries ; his reputation is much more largely due to these letters than either to his somewhat feeble play of Macias or to his not very attractive novel El Dowel de Enrique el Doliente. With Larra must be associated two other humoristic writers. The first of these is Ramon Mesonero Romanos, "El Curioso Parlante " (born 1803), whose Escenas Matritenses, although not possessed of the literary value of Larra's articles, give pleasure by their good-natured gaiety and by the curious details they furnish with regard to the contemporary society of Madrid. The other is Serafin Estebanez Calderon, "El Solitario" (1799-1867), who in his Escenas Andaluzes sought to revive the manner of the satirical and picaresque writers of the 17th century ; in a uselessly archaic language of his own, patched up from fragments taken from Cervantes, Quevedo, and others, he has delineated with a peculiar but somewhat artificial grace various piquant scenes of Andalusian or Madrilenian life. The most prominent literary critics belonging to the first generation of the century were Alberto Lista (1775-1848), whose critical doctrine may be described as a compromise between the ideas of French classicism and those of the romantic school, and Agustin Duran (died 1862), who made it his special task to restore to honour the old literature of Castile, particularly its If the struggle between classicists and romanticists continued even after 1830, and continued to divide the literary world into two opposing camps, it is plain that the new generation - that which occupied the scene from 1840 till about 18G8 - had other preoccupations. The triumph of the new ideas is now assured ; only a few reactionaries are still seen to cling to the principles bequeathed by the 18th century. What was now being aimed at was the creation of a new literature which should be truly national and no longer a mere echo of that beyond the Pyrenees. To the question whether contemporary Spain has indeed succeeded in calling into existence such a literature, we may well hesitate to give an affirmative answer. It is true that in every species of composition, the grai,est as well as the lightest, it can show works of genuine talent ; but many of them are strikingly deficient in originality ; all of them either bear unmistakable traces of imitation of foreign models, or show (more or less happily) the imprint of the older literature of the 17th century, to which the historical criticism of Duran and the labours of various other scholars had given a flavour of novelty. With this observation before him, the student can divide the authors of this period into two groups,--the one composed of those who, won by modern ideas, are more or less liberal in politics, and draw their inspiration in all they write from France or from what they are able to assimilate of other literatures through France ; the other consisting of ultra-conservatives, whose dream in every sphere - letters, art, and politics - is the restoration of the Spain of the past. Nowhere does this antagonism manifest itself more clearly than in the drama. A play of Aureliano Fernandez Guerra might have been conceived and written by a contemporary of Lope or of Calderon, while a comedy of Adelardo Lopez de Ayala is moulded in the pattern given by the younger Dumas and by Augier. In the department of romance, on the other hand - much neglected by the writers of the first half of the century - the Spaniards have recovered something of the genius of Cervantes and their 17th century novelas picarescas. The art of constructing a story and of telling it in an agreeable way, which seemed for a long time to have been lost, is recovered in such authors as Fernan Caballero, Antonio de Trueba, Pedro Antonio de Alarcon, Juan Valera, Perez Galdos, and Pereda. These novelists are far from alike in method or in spirit ; how widely separated, for example, are the somewhat banal facility and the sentimental catholicism of Fernan Caballero on the one hand, and the searching psychological analysis and the fine scepticism of Juan Valera on the other. But all have this in common, that they understand how to interest their readers, and how to make their characters live and speak. Incontestably the novel is the triumph of contemporary Spanish literature ; it is almost the only kind of composition that actually lives with a life of its own and makes steady progress. Oue cannot say as much of lyric poetry, represented feebly enough by Ramon de Campoamor, Nunez de Arce, and some others. Deficient inspiration, diffuseness of style, and want of precision in language characterize them all ; it is unfortunately very easy to make mediocre verses in Spanish, and too many people give themselves over to the pursuit. Passing from the literature of amusement, we have still some very distinguished names to enumerate. Philosophy, indeed, has but one representative of merit, the traditionalist Jaime Balmes, - for the Krausist school, an importation from Germany, may be ignored here, - but history and literary criticism have been cultivated during the last thirty years or so with genuine success. Modesto Lafuente is in some sort the Mariana of the 19th century; much inferior as a writer to the celebrated Jesuit, he has, however, always manifested the same passion for his subject, the same persevering determination to raise a worthy monument of his fatherland; his IIistoria de Esparta, in spite of all its defects, deserves respect, and is at least readable. Although primarily a politician, Antonio Cane-vas del Castillo has many of the qualities which go to the making of a good historian ; he has evinced greater acuteness and larger acquirements than Lafuente, and his Ensayo sobre la Casa de Austria en Esparta, founded upon a careful examination of a large number of documents, gives evidence of a correct judgment and praiseworthy impartiality. The literary history of old Spain has been treated in a masterly manner by Aureliano Fernandez Guerra in various studies devoted to the great writers of the 17th century, notably Quevedo, and also quite recently by a young and talented scholar, Marcelino Menendez Pelayo, whose historic de las Ideas Estaicas en Esparta, a work as solid in its substance as-it is pure in its style, would do honour to any veteran in literature. As regards criticism of contemporary literature, no one shows more spirit and taste than Juan Valera, whose delicate Andalusian nature has been matured by a refining education and by an adequate knowledge of foreign literatures.
Bibliography. - The base of the student's operations is always the great work of Nicolas Antonio, Bibliotheca Hispana Vetus and Bibliotheca Hispana Nova, in the revised and completed edition of Francisco Perez Bayer, Tomas Antonio Sanchez, and Juan Antonio Pellicer (Madrid, 1783-88, 4 vols. fol.). The student can afford to disregard all the general histories which preceded Ticknor's History of Spanish Literature (New York, 1849, 3 vols. 8vo ; 4th ed., Boston, 1872, 3 vols. 8vo), a work of solid value, especially from the bibliographical point of view ; it is quite indispensable that the reader should consult also the Spanish translation by 1). Pascual de Gayangos and Enrique de Yedia (Madrid, 1851-56) and the German translation of Julius with some important additions by Ferdinand Wolf (Leipsic, 1852-67). Nothing can be said in favour of the French translation by J. G. Magnabal (Paris, 186472). The Historia Critica de la Literatura Espanola of Jog Amador de los Rios (Madrid, 1861-65, 7 vols. 8vo), although deficient in criticism and full of errors in fact, supplies some useful information as to the period prior to the 15th century, with which it exclusively deals. Menendez Pelayo's Historia de las Ideas Esteticas en, Espana (Madrid, 1884-86, 3 vols. 8vo), already referred to, is very instructive. For the 18th century, Leopoldo A. de Cueto's " Bosquejo HistOrico-Critico de la Poesia Castellana en el Siglo xviii.," prefixed to the first vol. of Rivadeneyra's Poctas Liricos del Style xviii., is indispensable. For the 19th century there is not as yet any satisfactory work dealing with the literature as a whole ; that of M. G. Hubbard, Histoire de la Litterature Contemporaine en Espagne (Paris, 1876, 1 vol. 8vo), although superficial and inaccurate, is useful in the absence of anything better. Some descriptions of Castilian literature have been specially studied with care and competence, notably the drama, on which we have two thorough works, - Frederick von Schack's Ceschichte der dramatischen Literatur u. Kunst in S'pauien (Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1846-54, 3 vols. 8vo), unforttinately now much behindhand, and in no way improved in this respect in the Spanish translation now in course of publication at Madrid under the superintendence of Eduardo de Mier, and Cayetano Alberto de la Barrera's excellent Catalogo Bibliogrdfico y Biografico del Teatro Antiguo Espaiiol (Madrid, 1860, large 8vo). On the Castilian literature of the Middle 1 Ages, the works to be consulted are Ferdinand Wolf's Studien cur Ceschiehte der Spanischen u. Portugiesischen Nationallitcratur (Berlin, 1859, 1 vol. 8vo) and Manuel Mild y Fontanals's De la Poesia Heroico-Popular Castellana (Barcelona, 1874, 1 vol. 8vo).
II. CATALAN LITERATURE. - Although the Catalan Ian- Poetryli Middle guage is simply a branch of the southern Gallo-Roman, 1.d the literature, in its origin- at least, ought to be considered Ages; as a mere appendix of that of Provence. Nay more, until about the second half of the 13th century there existed in the Catalan districts no other literature than the Provencal, and the poets of north-eastern Spain used no other language than that of the troubadours. Guillem de Bergadan, Uc de Mataplana, Ramon Vidal de Besahi, Guillem de Cervera, Serveri de Gerona, and several other verse writers of a still more recent date are all genuine Provencal poets, in the same sense as are those of Limousin, Quercy, or Auvergne, since they write in the longue cl'oc and make use of all the forms of poetry cultivated by the troubadours north of the Pyrenees. Ramon Vidal (end of 12th century and beginning of 13th) was a grammarian as well as a poet ; his Jiasos de Trobar became the code for the Catalan poetry written in Provencal, which he called Lemosi, a name still kept up in Spain to designate, not the literary idiom of the troubadours only, .but also the local idiom - Catalau, - which the Spaniards choose to consider as derived from the former. The influence of R. Vidal and other grammarians of his school, as well as that of the troubadours we have named, lasted for a very long time ; and even after Catalan prose - an exact reflexion of the spoken language of the south-east of the Pyrenees - had given evidence of its vitality in some considerable works, the Catalan poetry remained faithful to the Provencal tradition. From the combination of spoken Catalan with the literary language of the troubadours there arose a sort of composite idiom, which has some analogy with the Franco-Italian current in certain parts of Italy in the Middle Ages, although in the one case the elements of the mixture are more distinctly apparent than are the romance of France and the romance of Italy in the other. The poetical works of Raymond Lully (Ramon Lull) (died 1315) are among the oldest examples of this Provencalized Catalan ; one has only to read the fine piece entitled Lo Desconort (" Despair "), or some of his stanzas on religious subjects, to apprehend at once the eminently composite nature of that language. Muntaner in like manner, whose prose is exactly that spoken by his contemporaries, becomes troubadour when he writes in verse ; his Sumo on the conquest of Sardinia and Corsica (1323), introduced into his Chronicle of the kings of Aragon, exhibits linguistically quite the same mixed character as is found in Lully, or, we may venture to say, in all the Catalan verse writers of the 14th century. These are not very numerous, nor are their works of any great merit. The majority of their compositions consist of what were called noves rintades, that is, stories in octosyllabic verse in rhymed couplets. There exist poems of this class by Pere March, by a certain Torrella, by Bernat Metge (an author more celebrated for his prose), and by others whose names we do not know ; among the works belonging to this last category special mention ought to be made of a version of the romance of the Seven Sages, a translation of a book on good breeding entitled Facetus, and certain tales where, by the choice of subjects, by various borrowings, and even occasionally by the wholesale introduction of pieces of French poetry, it is clearly evident that the writers of Catalonia understood and read the longue d'otti. Closely allied to the novas rimudes is another analogous form of versification - that of the codoladap consisting of a series of verses of eight and four syllables, rhyming in pairs, still made use of iu one portion of the Catalan domain (Majorca).
of 15th The 15th century is the golden age of Catalan poetry.
century. At the instigation and under the auspices of John I. (1387-1395), Martin I. (1395-1410), and Ferdinand I. (1410-1416), kings of Aragon, there was founded at Barcelona a consistory of the " Gay Saber," on the model of that of Toulouse, and this official protection accorded to poetry was the beginning of a new style much more emancipated from Provencal influence. It cannot be denied, indeed, that its forms are still of foreign importation, that the Catalan verse writers accept the prescriptions of the Leys d'Amor of Guillaume Moliuier, and the names which they gave to their cobles (stanzas) are all borrowed from the same art de trobar of the school of Toulouse; but, a very noteworthy fact, their language begins to rid itself more and more of Provencalisms and tends to become the same as that of prose and of ordinary conversation. With Pere and Jaume March, Jordi do Sant Jordi, Johan de Masdovelles, Francesch Ferrer, Pere Torroella, Pau de Bellviure, Antoni Vallmanya, and, above all, the Valencian Auzias March (died 1459), there flourished a new school, of which the éclat lasted till the end of the 15th century, and which, as regards the form of its versification, is distinguished by its almost exclusive employment of eight-verse cobles of ten syllables, each with " crossed " or "chained" rhymes (cobla croltada or encadenada), each composition ending with a tornada of four verses, in the first of which tho " device" (diuis or senyal) of the poet is given out. The greater number of these poems are still unedited or have only recently been extracted from the canconers, where they had been collected in the 15th century. Auzias March alone, the most inspired, the most profound, but also the most obscure of the whole group, had the honour to be printed in the 16th century ; his cants d'amor and cants de mort contain the finest verses ever written in Catalan, but the poet fails to keep up to his own high level, and by his studied obscurity occasionally becomes unintelligible to such a degree that one of his editors accuses him of having written in Basque. Of a wholly different class, and in quite another spirit, is the Libya de les Dones of Jaume Roig (died 1478), a Valencian also, like March ; this long poem is a nova rimada, only comediada, that is to say, it is in quadrisyllabic instead of octosyllabic verse. A bitter and caustic satire upon women, it purports to be a true history, - the history of the poet himself and of his three unhappy marriages in particular. Notwithstanding its author's allegations, however, the Libre de les Dones does not seem to be other than a fiction ; but it derives a very piquant interest from its really authentic element, its vivid picture of the Valencia of the 15th century and the details of the manners of that time. After this bright period of efflorescence Catalan poetry rapidly fell off, a decline due more to the force of circumstances than to any fault of the poets. The union of Aragon with Castile, and the resulting predominance of Castilian throughout Spain, inflicted a death blow on Catalan literature, especially on its artistic poetry, a kind of composition more ready than any other to avail itself of the triumphant idiom which soon came to be regarded by men of letters as the only noble one, and alone fit to be the vehicle of elevated or refined thoughts. The fact that a Catalan, Juan Boscan, inaugurates in the Castilian language a new kind of poetry, and that the Castilians themselves regard him as the head of a school, is important and characteristic ' • the date of the publication of the works of Boscan (1543) marks the end of Catalan poetry.
The earliest prose works in Catalan are later indeed than Prose of the poems of the oldest Catalan troubadours of the Pro_ 13th-1.50 vencal school, not dating farther back than from the close centimes. of the 13th century, but they have the advantage of being entirely original ; their language is the very language of the soil which we see appearing in charters from about the time of the accession of James I. (1213). This is true especially of the chronicles,' a little less so of the other writings, which, like the poetry, have difficulty in escaping the influence of the more polished dialect of the country to the north of the Pyrenees. Its chronicles are the best ornament of medimeval Catalan prose. Four of them, - that of James I., apparently reduced to writing a little after his death (1276) with the help of memoirs dictated by himself during his lifetime ; that of Bernat Des Clot, which deals chiefly with the reign of Pedro III. of Aragon (1276-1286); that of Ramon Muntaner (first half of the 14th century), relating at length the expedition of the Catalan company to the Noma and the conquest of Sardinia by James II. ; finally that of Pedro IV., The Ceremonious (1336-1387), genuine commentaries of that astute monarch, arranged by certain officials of his court, notably by Bernet Des Coll, - these four works are distinguished alike by the artistic skill of their narration and by the quality of their language ; it would not be too much to liken these Catalan chroniclers, and Muntaner especially, to Villehardouin, Joinville, and Froissart. The Doctor Illuminatus, Raymond Lully, whose acquaintance with Latin was very poor, - his philosophical works were done into that language by his disciples, - wrote in a somewhat Provencalized Catalan various moral and propagandist works, - the romance Blanquerna in praise of the solitary life, the Libre de les Maravelles, into which is introduced a " bestiary " taken by the author from Kalilah and Dim-nag, and the Libre del Orde de Cavalleria, a manual of the perfect knight, besides a variety of other treatises and opuscula of minor importance. The majority of the writings of Lully exist in two versions, - one in the vernacular, which is his own, the other in Latin, originating with his disciples, who desired to give currency throughout Christendom to their master's teachings. Lully - who was very popular in the lay world, although the clergy had a low opinion of him and in the 15th century even set themselves to obtain a condemnation of his works by the Inquisition - had a rival in the person of Francesch Jimenez or Eximeniz, a Franciscan, born at Gerona some time after 1350. His Crestid, (printed in 1483-84) is a vast encyclopedia of theology, morals, and politics for the use of the laity, supplemented in various aspects by his three other works - Vida de Jesu Christ, Libre dels Angels, and Libre de les Dones ; the last-named, which is at once a book of devotion and a manual of domestic economy, contains a number of curious details as to a Catalan woman's manner of life and the luxury of the period. Lully and Eximeniz are the only Catalan authors of the 14th century whose works written in a vulgar tongue had the honour of being translated into French shortly after their appearance.
We have chiefly translators and historians in the 15th century. Antoni Canals, a Dominican, who belongs also to the previous century, translates into Catalan Valerius Maximus and a treatise of St Bernard ; Bernet Metge, himself well-versed in Italian literature, presents some of its great masters to his countrymen by translating the Griselidis of Petrarch, and also by composing Lo Sompni ("The Dream "), in which the influence of Dante, of Boccaccio, and, generally speaking, of the Italy of the 13th and 14th centuries is very perceptible. The Feyts d'Armes de Catalunya of Bernet Boades, a knightly chronicle brought to a close in 1420, reveals a spirit of research and a conscientiousness in the selection of materials which are truly remarkable Mr the age in which it was written. On the other hand, Pere Tomich, in his Histories e Conquestes del Reyalme d'Arago (1438), carries us back too much to the manner of the medival chroniclers ; his credulity knows no bounds, while his style has altogether lost the naive charm of that of Muntaner. To the list of authors who represent the leading tendencies of the literature of the 15th century we must add the name of Johanot Martorell, a Valencian, author of the celebrated romance of chivalry Tirant lo Blanch (finished in 1460), which the reader has nowadays some difficulty in regarding as that "treasury of contentment" which Cervantes will have it to be.
18th-18th With the loss of political was bound to coincide that of centuries. literary independence in the Catalonian countries. Catalan fell to the rank of a patois and was written less and less; lettered persons ceased to cultivate it, and the upper classes, especially in Valencia, owing to the proximity of Castile, soon affected to make no further use of the local speech except in familiar conversation. The 16th century, in fact, furnishes literary history with hardly more than a single poet at all worthy of the name - Pere Serafi, some of whose pieces, in the style of Auzias March, but less obscure, are graceful enough and deserve to live ; his poems were printed at Barcelona in 1565. Prose is somewhat better represented, but, to tell the truth, it is only the erudite who persist in writing in Catalan, - antiquaries and historians like Pere Miguel Carbonell, compiler of the Chroniques de Espanya (1547), Francesch Tarafa, Pere Anton Beuter, also chroniclers, and some others not so well known. In the 11th and 18th centuries the decadence becomes still more marked. A few scattered attempts to restore to the Catalan, now more and more neglected by men of letters, some of its old life and brilliance, fail miserably. Neither Hieronim Pujades the historian, author of a Coronica Universal del Principat (Barcelona, 1609), nor even Dr Vicens Garcia, rector of Vallfogona (1582-1623), a verse-writer by no means destitute of verve or humour, but whose literary talent and originality have been very greatly exaggerated by the Catalans of the present day, was able to bring back his countrymen to a cultivation of the local idiom. Some sermons, some lives of saints, some books of devotion, some relations and complaints for the use of the people, exhaust the catalogue of everything written in Catalan throughout the whole area of its domains down to the beginning of the present century ; not a single book of importance can be mentioned. Writers who were Catalan by birth had so completely unlearned their mother-tongue that it would have seemed to them quite inappropriate, and even ridiculous, to make use of it in serious works, so profoundly had Castilian struck its roots in the eastern provinces of Spain, and so thoroughly had the work of assimilation been carried out to the advantage of the official language of the court and of the Government.
In 1814 appeared the Gramatica y Apologia de la Revival Llengua Cathalana of Joseph Pau Ballot y Torres, which of may be considered as marking the origin of a genuine Catalan of the grammatical and literary study of and litera Catalan. Although the author avows no object beyond tore.
the purely practical one of giving to strangers visiting Barcelona for commercial purposes some knowledge of the language, the enthusiasm with which he sings the praises of his mother-tongue, and his appended catalogue of works which have appeared in it since the time of James I., sufficiently show that this was not his only aim. In point of fact the book, which is entitled to high consideration as being the first systematic Catalan grammar, written, too, authors and literary men of the principality. Under the helping influence of the new doctrines of romanticism in the despised idiom itself, had a great influence on the twenty years had not passed before a number of attempts in the way of restoring the old language had made/their appearance, in the shape of various poetical works of very unequal merit. The Oda d la Patria (1833) of Buenaventura Carlos Aribau is among the earliest if not actually the very first of these, and it is also the best ; the modern Catalan school has not produced anything either more inspired or more correct. Following in the steps of Aribau, Joaquin Rubio y Ors (Lo Gayter del Llobregat), Antonio de Bofarull (Lo Coblejador de Moncada)' and soon afterwards a number of other verse writers took up the lyre which it might have been feared was never to sound again since it fell from the hands of Auzias March. The movement spread from Catalonia into other provinces of the ancient kingdom of Aragon ; the appeal of the Catalans of the principality was responded to at Valencia and in the Balearic Isles. Later, the example of Provence, of the felibritge of the south of France, accelerated still further this renaissance movement, which received official recognition in 1859 by the creation of the jocks florals, in which prizes are given to the best competitors in poetry, of whom some succeed in obtaining the diploma of mestre en gay saber. It is of course impossible to foresee the future of this new Catalan literature,-whether it is indeed destined for that brilliant career which the Catalans themselves anticipate. In spite of the unquestionable talent of poets like Mariano AguilO (Majorca), Tcodoro Llorente (Valencia), and, among the younger of them, Jacinto Verdaguer (Catalonia), author of an epic poem Atlantida and of very fascinating Cants .31isticks, it is by no means certain that this generation will be succeeded by another to follow in its footsteps, or that such a restoration of a provincial literature has much chance of permanence at the very moment when all the peoples of Europe are tending rather towards unity and centralization in the matter of language. At all events, in order to secure even a comparative success for such a revival, it would be well if the language serving as its instrument were somewhat more fixed, and if its writers would no longer hesitate, as they at present do, between a pretentious archaism and the incorrectness of the most vulgar colloquialism. The few attempts of modern Catalans in the direction of romance writing and dramatic composition have not hitherto been particularly felicitous, and have not led to anything noteworthy.
Bibliography. -Jos6 Rodriguez, Biblioteca Valentina, 1 vol. fol,, Valencia, 1747 ; Ximeno, Eseritores del Rept° do Valencia, 2 vols. ful., Valencia, 1747-49; Fuster, Biblioteca Valeneicout, 2 vols. fol., Valencia, 1827-30; Torres Amat, Illentoricts pare ayudar k formar tot Dieeionario Critieo de los Escritores Catalanes, Barcelona, 1836; supplement by J. Corminas, Burgos, 1849; F. R. Cambouliu, Essai tar Histoire do la .Litterature Catalano, Paris, 1858 ; A. Helferrich, Raymond Lull und die iinftinge der Catalonischen Literat ten Berlin, 1858 (compare on the last two works the article by Ad. Ebert in the Jahrb. I romanische u. englischc Litcratur, ii. 241); Manual Mila y Fontanals, De los Trovadores en _Espana, Barcelona, 1861; Id., " Catalanische Dichter " (14th and 15th centuries), in Jahrb. f. rout. Lit., v. 137; Id., " Besenya. Histdrica Critica dell Antichs Poetas Catalans," in the Jocks Florals of Barcelona for 1865; Id., various articles in the Revue des Langues Romans; P. Meyer in _Romania, passim ; Morel-Fatio, ibid. For the modern period see Joaquin Rubio y Om, Breve Roseau del Actual Renaeimiento de, la Lengua y Literatura Catalancts, Barcelona, 1877, and 'rubble, histories del Renacimiento Literario Contemporaneo en Cataluiia, Baleares, y Valencia, Madrid, 1879. (A. M.-F.) 'Abdallah, 812. Carlos, Don (king of 'Abd al-Rabin:Cm (Abde- Naples), 338.
rame) I.-III., 310-313. Carthaginian rule, 305.
Academia Espanola, 360. astile, 312, 315, 318-322.
Administration, 303. Castile and Leon, 317.
Agriculture, 298. Castilian language, 349.
Alberonl, 337. Castilian literature, 353.
Aleman, 357. Castillejo, 357.
Alfonso L-II. (Aragon), Castro, 358.
Alfonso Ill., 322. Catalan literature, 362.
Alfonso IV., 323. Catalonia, 325.
Alfonso V., 324. Cattle, 300.
Alfonso VL-VIII. (Cas- Celtiberl, 305.
tile), 316. Cervantes, 356, 357, 358.
Alfonso X., 318, 354. Charles L, 328.
Alfonso XI., 319. Charles II., 333.
Al-Hakarn L, 310. Charles of Viana, 324.
Al-Hakam II., 313. Chivalry, books of, 354.
Almansor, 314. Christianity, early, 311.
Almohades, 816. Christina, 345.
,ilmoravids, 316. Chronicles, 354, 868.
Alvaro de Luna, 821. Church, 303.
Amadeus of Aosta, 346. Cid, 316, 353.
Amadis deGaida, 355. Climate, 296.
American possessions, Colonies, 298, 327.
Amirids, 314. Commerce, 302.
Andalusian dialect, 351. Communes, rising of, 328.
Animals, 297. Crusaders, 316.
Arab rule, 309. D'Aranda, 341.
Aragon, 312, 315, 317, on Quixote, 358.