PROVINCE WELLESLEY, which lies opposite Penang, was at one time part of the Kedah territory, from which it is now separated by the Kwala Muda. river. Southwards it extends (since 1874) a little to the south of the Krian river and marches with Perak. The boundary was rectified by treaty with Siam in 1867. Butterworth is the scat of the Government headquarters. The country consists for the most part of fertile plain, and the remainder, about one-eleventh of the whole, is low wooded hills (highest 1843 feet). Some of the low land is rich dark alluvial soil, and much of it is sandy ; in the hills a ferruginous sandy loam of rather poor quality prevails. Sugar-growing has long been a staple industry, and tea plantations began to be formed in 1869-70.