marks wound heart maria stigmata wounds clare paris
STIGMATIZATION, literally the infliction of stigmata, like those of Christ.
An ancient and widespread method of showing tribal of Hercules in Egypt (ii. 113), says that it is not lawful to capture runaway slaves, who take refuge therein if they receive certain marks on their bodies, devoting then to the deity. Some such idea is perhaps alluded to by Paul (Gal. vi. 17) in the words, "from henceforth let no man tude, is mentioned in many of the classics (Pliny, H. N. individual cases, and they may be grouped in the followxviii. 3 ; Varro, De Re Rustica, i. 18 ; Suetonius, Caligula, kg series : - xxvii. dr,c.), and was forbidden by Constantine. I. As regards full stigmatization, with the visible production of In the period of persecution Christian martyrs were the five wounds, and generally with the mark of the crown as well, sometimes branded with the name of Christ on their forethe oldest case, after St Francis, is that of Ida of Louvain (1300), in whom the marks appeared as coloured circles; in Gertrude von heads (Pontius, "De Vit. S. Cypriani," Bibliotlt. Veteruni Oosten of Delft (1344) they were coloured scars, and disappeared Patrum, iii. p. 472, § vii.). This was sometimes self- in answer to prayer as they also did on Dominica de Paradis; in inflicted as a disfigurement by nuns for their protection, Sister Pierona, a Franciscan, they were blackish grey. They were as in the case of St Ebba, abbess of Coldingham (see true wounds in Margaret Ebnerin of Nuremberg (d. 1351), but they so disappea in to her prayer (see her L, As- Baronius, Annales, xv. p. 215, anno 870, also Tert., De burg, al1717), as wares the easeanswer with Brigitte, a Dominican ife tertiaugry Vel. Virg.). Some Christians likewise marked themselves (1390), and also with Lidwina. An intermission is described in the on their hands or arms with the cross or the name of marks on Johanna della Croce of Madrid (1524), in whom the wound Christ (Procopius, In Esaiam, ed. Curterius, p. 496) and in the side was large, and the others were rose-coloured circular , patches. The marks appeared on each Friday and vanished on other voluntary mutilations for Christ's sake are menSunday. These emitted an odour of violets; but in Sister Apoltioned (Matt. xix. 12 ; Fortunatus, Life of St Rhadegund, Ionia of Volaterra they were fetid while she lived. Angela della (see vol. ix. p. 692). While meditating on the sufferings thorns; she chose the latter and immediately was seized with such pain that her confessor heard her skull cracking. This case was of our Lord, in his cell on Mount Alverno, we are told by a Poor Clare; Matilda von Stanz ; Margaret Bruch of Endringen influence the previously-founded order of St Dominic. (1503); Maria Razzi of Chios (15S2); Catharine Januensis; ElizaThe reputation of the latter order was, however, equally beth Reith of Angell ; Stieva zu Hamm in Westphalia.; Sister Mary raised in the next century by the occurrence of the same of the Incarnation at Pontoise ; Archangela Tardera in Sicily (1608); wonder in the case of a sister of the third rule of St Catharine Ricci in Florence (1590); and Joanna Maria della Croce, a Poor Clare at Revered° (d. 1673), upon whom the markings of the Dominic, Catherine Benincasa, - better known as St thorn crown and spear wound were especially deep.
Catherine of Siena. From her biographer's account we II. In some cases, although the pains of stigmatization were felt, ceived the first stigma (see vol. v. p. 230). In spite of her Columba Rocasani; Magdalena de Pazzis; Anna of Vargas; Hieronyma Carvaglio ; Maria of Lisbon, a Dominican; Joanna di Veranathema, the erasure of stigmata from pictures of St Cialina (d. 1619) the pain was chiefly that of the crown of thorns, as it was also in Amelia Bicchieri of Vercelli, an Augustinian.
Catherine, and prohibiting all expressions of belief in the III. In a third series some of the marks were visible on the neve de ejus stigmatibus fiat verbum, out sermo, .vel pne- of Vincentia Ferreria at Valencia (d. 1515) and Philippa de Santo Tomaso of Montemor (1670), while according to Torellus the thick and fast,--now a Franciscan, now a Dominican, very Stephano Quinzani, in Soncino (1457), there was a profuse bloody sweat and the wounds were intermitting, appearing on Friday rarely a religieuse of another order, showing the marks. and Saturday, vanishing on Sunday. Blanche Gazinan, daughter Altogether about ninety instances are on record, of which of Count Arias de Sagavedra (1564), was marked only on the right eighteen were males and seventy-two females. Most of foot, as also was Catherine, a Cistercian nun. The heart wound them occurred among residents in religious houses, and was visible in Christina Mirabilis (1232). Gabrielda de Piezolo tookplace after the austerities of Lent, usually on Good (d. 1473) died from the bleeding of such a wound, and similar wounds were described in Maria de Acosrin in Toledo; Eustochia, Friday, when the mind was intently fixed on our Lord's a tertiary of St Francis ; Clara de Bugny, a Dominican (1514); Passion ; and, from their occurrence being for the most Cecilia Nobili, a Poor Clare of Nuceria (d. 1655). In the last part among members of the two orders to which St Francis instance the heart wound was found after death - a three-cornered and St Catherine belonged, the possibility of the recep- puncture. A similar wound was seen in the heart of Martina de lla(vde of L (d. 01644a Pella, 1644). Maria Villana, a Poor Clare, daughter of the m tion of the marks was constantly before their eyes and was marked with the crown and the spear thoughts. The order of infliction in the majority of cases thrust, and after death the impresses of the spear, sponge, and was that of the crucifixion, the first token being a bloody reed were found on her heart (d. 1670). The wound was usually sweat, followed by the coronation with thorns ; after- on the left side, as in Sister Masrona of Grenoble, a tertiary of St wards the hand and foot wounds appear, that of the side Francis (1627) ; it was on the right in Margareta Columns, also a Clare. In Maria de Sarmiento it was said to have been inflicted being the last. The grade of the infliction varied in by a seraph in a vision.
IV. In a fourth set of cases the imprints were said to have been found on the heart, even though there was no surface marking. Thus the Dominican Paula de St Thomas was said to have had the stigmata on her heart. The heart of Clare of Montfaucon (1308) was said to have been as large as a child's head and impressed with the cross, the scourge, and the nails. Similar appearances were found in Margaret of Citta di Capello and Johanna of Yepes . - (1591).
The instances of masculine stigmatization are few. Benedict di Rhegio, a Capuchin at Bologna, had the marks of the crown (1602) ; Carolus Sazia, an ignorant lay brother, had the wound in his side. Dodo, a Pnemonstratensian lay brother, was fully stigmatized, as also was Philip de Aqueria. The marks after death were found on the heart of Angeles del Pas, a minorite of Perpignan, as also on Matheo Carery in Mantua, Melchior of Arazel in Valentia, Cherubin de Aviliana (an Augustinian), and Agolini of Milan. Walter of Strasburg, a preaching friar (1264), had the heart-pain but no mark, and the same was the case with a Franciscan, Robert de Malatestis (1430), and James Stephanus. On Nicholas of Ravenna the wounds were seen after death, while John Gray, a Scotsman, a Franciscan martyr, had one wound on his foot.
Within the last hundred years several cases have occurred. Anna Katharina Emmerich, a peasant girl born at -Minster in 1774, afterwards an Augustinian nun at Agnetenberg, was even more famous for her visions and revelations than for the stigmata. Biographies, with records of her visions, have been published by Brentano at Munich in 1852 and the Abbe Cazales at Paris (1870). Colombe Schanolt of Bamberg (1787) was fully stigmatized, as also was Rose Serra, a Capuchin of Ozieri in Sardinia (1801), and Madeleine Lorger (1806). Two well-known cases occurred in Tyrol, - one " L'Ecstatica " Maria von Morl of Caldaro, a girl of noble family, stigmatized in 1839, the other " L'Addolorata " Maria Dominica Lazzari, a miller's daughter at Capriana, stigmatized in 1835 (see Bore, Les Stigmatisees du Tyrol, Paris, 1846). A case of the second class is that of Elizabeth Eppinger of Niederbrunn in Bavaria (1814), reported on by Kuhn. An interesting example of stigmatic trance also occurred in the case of a Protestant young woman in Saxony in 1820, who appeared as if dead on Good Friday and Saturday and revived on Easter Sunday.
The last case recorded is that of Louiso Lateen, a peasant girl at Bois de Haine, Hainault, upon whom the stigmata appeared April 24, 1868. This case was investigated by Professor Lefebvre of Louvain, who for fifteen years was physician to two lunatic asylums. In her there was a periodic bleeding of the stigmata every Friday, and a frequent recurrence of the hystero-cataleptic condition. Her biography has been written by Lefebvre and published at Louvain (1870).
On surveying these ninety cases, we may discount a certain number, including all those of the second class, as examples of subjective sensations suggested by the contemplation of the pains of crucifixion. A second set, of which the famous case of Jetzer (Wirz, Helvetische Kirchengeschichte, 1810, iii. p. 389) is a type, must be also set aside as obvious and intentional frauds produced on victims by designing persons. A. third series, and how large a group we have not sufficient evidence to decide, we must regard as due to the irresponsible self-infliction of injuries by persons in the hystero-epileptic condition, those perverted states of nervous action which Charcot has done so much to elucidate. To any experienced in this form of disease, many of the phenomena described in the records of these examples are easily recognizable as characteristic of the hystero-epileptic state.
There are, however, some instances not easily explained, where the self-infliction hypothesis is not quite satisfactory.
Parallel cases of physical effects due to mental suggestion are well authenticated. Beaunis vouches for rubefaction and vesication as produced by suggestion in the hypnotic state, and Donau and Burot describe a case, still under observation, of bloody sweat, and red letters marked on the arm by simple tracing with the finger. See Congres Scientifique de Grenoble, Progres Medicale, 29 Aug. 1885, and Berj on's La Grande Hysteric ch,ez l'Horanze, Paris, 1886. We know so little of the trophic action of the higher nerve centres that we cannot say how far tissue nutrition can be controlled in spots. That the nerve centres have a direct influence on local nutrition is in some cases capable of experimental demonstration, and, in another sphere, the many authenticated instances of connexion between maternal impression and congenital deformity seem to indicate that this trophic influence has wider limits and a more specific capacity of localization than at first sight seems possible. There is no known pathological condition in which blood transudation can take place through an unbroken skin.
Literature. - See references to each name in Acta Sanctum= or Hueber, Menologium Franciscanaritin,1698 ; Henriquez, Menologium cistersiense; Marchese, Sagro Diario ; Steill, Ephemerides Dominicane Sacrse, Dillingen, 1692; Petrus de Alva y Astorga, Prodigium Natures Portentium Gratise, Strasburg, 1664 ; Thiepolus, De Passions Christi, tract. xii. ; Meyer, Blatter far Were lVahrheit, vii. 5 ; „Hurter, Tableau des Institutions et des Mann de l'Eglise ass Mayen Age, Paris, 1842; Gorres, Die Christliche Mystik, Ratisbon, p. 410 sq.; Franciscus Quaresmius, De Vulneribus Domini, Venice, 1652, i. 4 ; Raynaud, Opera, vol. xiii., Lyons, 1665; Dublin Review, 1871, p. 170 ; Maury, Magic et Astrologic ; Beaunis, Reclierches exp. sur l'Activite Cerebrate, Paris, 1886 ; Bourbeyre, Les Stigmatisees, Paris, 1886; Enncmoser, Der ifagnetismus im Verhattniss zur Religion, Stuttgart, 1853, § 92; Tholuck's Vermischte Schriften, Ham- ' burg, 1889, p. 97 ; Schmieder, in Evang. Kirchenzeitung, Berlin, 1875, pp. 180, 345 ; Consptes Rendus de la Societe de Biologie, 12th July 1885. (A. MA.)