Stanfield, William Clarkson
stanhope lady lord pitt painter subjects
STANFIELD, WILLIAM CLARKSON (1794-1867), marine the impetuosity of his fiery heart the arbitrary measures painter, was born of Irish parentage at Sunderland in 1794. which the ministry favoured. Lord Stanhope's character As a youth he was a sailor, and during many long voyages was without any taint of meanness, and his conduct was he acquired that intimate acquaintance with the sea and marked by a lofty consistency never influenced by any shipping which was admirably displayed in his subsequent petty motives; but his speeches, able as they were, had works. In his spare time he diligently occupied himself no weight on the minds of his compeers in the upper in sketching marine subjects, and so much skill did lie chamber, and, from a disregard of their prejudices, too acquire that, after having been incapacitated by an accident often drove them into the opposite lobby. He was the from active service, he received an engagement, about chairman of the "Revolution Society," founded in honour 1818, to paint scenery for the " Old Royalty," a sailor's of the Revolution of 1688, the members of which in 1790 theatre in Wellclose Square, London. Along with David expressed their sympathy with the aims of the French Roberts he was afterwards employed at the Cobourg theatre, republicans. He brought forward in 1794 the case of Lambeth ; and in 1826 he became scene-painter to Drury Muir, one of the Edinburgh politicians who were trans-Lane theatre, where he executed some admirable work, ported to Botany Bay, and in 1795 he introduced into the especially distinguishing himself by the production of a Lords a motion deprecating any interference with the drop-scene, and by decorations for the Christmas pieces internal affairs of France. In all of these points he was for which the house was celebrated. Meanwhile he had hopelessly beaten, and in the last of them he was in a been at work upon some easel pictures of small dimensions, "minority of one " - a sobriquet which stuck to hiin and was elected a member of the Society of British Art- throughout life, - whereupon he seceded from parliaists. Encouraged by his success at the British Institution, mentary life for five years. The lean and awkward figure where in 1827 he exhibited his first important picture - of Lord Stanhope figured in a host of the caricatures of Wreckers off Fort Rouge - and in 1828 gained a premium Sayers and Gillray, reflecting on his political opinions and of 50 guineas, he before 1830 abandoned scene-painting, his personal relations with his children. His first wife and in that year made an extended tour on the Continent. died on 20th July 1780, and he married on 17th March He now produced his Mount St Michael, which ranks 1781 Louisa, daughter and sole heiress of the Hon. Henry as one of his finest works ; in 1832 he exhibited his Grenville (governor of Barbados in 1746 and ambassador Opening of New London Bridge and Portsmouth Har- to the Porte in 1762), a younger brother of the first Earl bour - commissions from William IV. - in the Royal Temple and George Grenville. Through his union with Academy, of which lie was elected an associate in 1832 this lady, who survived until March 1829, he was doubly and an academician in 1835 ; and until his death on the connected with the family of Grenville. By his first wife 18th of May 1867 he contributed to its exhibitions a he had three daughters, one of whom was Lady Hester long series of powerful and highly popular works, dealing Stanhope (see below), and his second wife was the mother mainly with marine subjects, but occasionally with scenes of three sons. Lord Stanhope died at the family seat of of a more purely landscape character. Chevening, Kent, on 15th December 1816.
Among these may be named - the Battle of Trafalgar (1836), Earl Stanhope was elected a fellow of the Royal Society so executed for the United Service Club ; the Castle of Ischia (1841), early as November 1772, and devoted a large part of his income Isola Bella (1841), among the results of a visit to Italy in 1839; to experiments in science and philosophy. He invented a French Troops Fording the Margo. (1847), the " Victory" Bearing method of securing buildings from fire (which, however, proved the Body of Nelson Towed into Gibraltar (1853), the Abandoned impracticable), the printing press and the lens which bear his (1856). He also executed two notable series of Venetian subjects, name, and a monochord for tuning musical instruments, suggested one for the banqueting-hall at Bowood, the other for Trentham. improvements in canal locks, made experiments in steam naviga• He was much employed on the illustrations for The Picturesque tion in 1795-97, and contrived two calculating machines. When Annual, and published a collection of lithographic views on the he acquired an extensive property in Devonshire, he projected Rhine, Moselle, and Meuse ; and forty of his works were en- a canal through that county from the Bristol to the English graved in line under the title of "Stanfield's Coast Scenery." Channel and took the levels himself. Electricity was another of Four of his engraved pictures are in the National Gallery, and the subjects which he studied, and the volume of Principles of his works may also be studied in the South Kensington Museum. Electricity which he issued in 1779 contained the rudiments of his A large collection of his productions were included in the Royal theory on the "return stroke " resulting from the contact with Academy's Winter Exhibition for 1870. The whole course of the earth of the electric current of lightning, which were afterwards Stanfield's art was powerfully influenced by his early practice amplified in a contribution to the Philosophical Transactions for as a scene-painter. But, though there is always a touch of the 1787. His principal labours in literature consisted of a reply to spectacular and the scenic in his works, and though their colour Burke's Reflections on the French Revolution (1790) and an Essay on is apt to be rather dry and bard, they are large and effective the rights of juries (1792), and he long meditated the compilation in handling, powerful in their treatment of broad atmospheric of a digest of the statutes. His scientific theories, his mechanical effects, and telling in composition, and they evince the most experiments, and his studies in music absorbed all his thoughts, complete knowledge of the artistic materials with which their and for them he neglected his wives and his children. His painter deals. youngest daughter, Lady Lucy Rachael Stanhope, eloped with the opposing influences of Eton and Geneva, devoting Lady Hester Stanhope abandoned her home and went to live with himself whilst resident in the Swiss city to the study her mother's relations. Lord Stanhope's high qualities were of mathematics, and acquiring from the associations con- marred by an impracticable disposition.
netted with Switzerland an intense love of liberty. He STANHOPE, LADY RESTER Lucy (1776-1839), the contested the representation of the city of Westminster eldest child of the third Earl Stanhope (noticed above), without success in 1774, when only just of age ; but from by his first wife Lady Hester Pitt, eldest daughter of the the general election of 1780 until his accession to the first earl of Chatham, lived for the earlier part of her life peerage on the 7th of March 1786 he represented through amid the surroundings of a noble mansion, or in close cons-the influence of Lord Shelburne the Buckinghamshire munion with her uncle William Pitt, the most prominent borough of High Wycombe, and during the sessions of minister of his age, and on his early death withdrew whilst 1783 and 1784 he gave his support to the administration still young to brood over the past in the solitudes of Pales-of William Pitt, whose sister Lady Hester Pitt he married tine. She was born on 12th March 1776, and dwelt at on 19th December 1774. When Pitt ceased to be inspired her father's seat of Chevening in Kent until early in 1800, by the Liberal principles of his early days, his brother-in- when his excitable and wayward disposition drove her to law severed their political connexion and opposed with all her grandmother's house at Burton Pynsent. A year or