stuttgart sturgeons palace rivers species north town south caught
STUART, JOHN M`DouALL (1818-1866), a South-Aus- Sturgeons are ground-feeders. With their projecting tralian explorer, was born in England in 1818 and arrived wedge-shaped snout they stir up the soft bottom, and by in the colony about 1839. He accompanied Captain Sturt's means of their sensitive barbels detect shells, crustaceans, 1844-45 expedition as draughtsman, and between 1858 and and small fishes, on which they feed. Destitute of teeth, 1862 he made six expeditions into the interior, the last of they are unable to seize larger prey.
which brought him on July 24 to the shores of the Indian In countries like England, where few sturgeons are caught, the fish is consumed .fresh, the flesh being firmer than that of ordinary fishes, well-flavoured, though somewhat oily. The sturgeon is included as a royal fish in an Act of King Edward II., which assigns to the sovereign all wrecks and whales, although it probably but rarely graces the royal table of the present period, or even that of the lord mayor of London, who can claim all sturgeons caught in the Thames above London Bridge. Where sturgeons are regularly caught in large quantities, as on the rivers of southern.
scarce. Its flesh, caviare, and air-bladder are of less value than those of the smaller kinds.
(6) The Sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus) is one of the smaller species, which likewise inhabits both the Black and Caspian Seas, and ascends rivers to a greater distance from the sea than any of the other sturgeons; thus, for instance, it is not uncommon in the Danube at Vienna, but specimens have been caught as high up as Ratisbon and Ulm. It is more abundant in the rivers of Russia, where it is held in high esteem on account of its excellent flesh, contributing also to the best kinds of caviare and isinglass. As America, their flesh 101*444.„1414•4 , • '240`. ..A.4# it ' .1:00.0.41*."*"7 46 4 e '- is dried, smoked, or "le salted. The ovaries, ..- "ZA/14 are prepared for caviare ; for this purpose they are beaten ./ early as last century attempts were with switches, and then pressed through sieves, leaving The Sterlet.
made to introduce this valuable fish into Prussia and Sweden, but without the membranous and fibrous tissues in the sieve, whilst the success. Tbe sterlet i's distinguished from the other European eggs are collected in a tub. The quantity of salt added to species by its long and narrow snout and fringed barbels. It them before they are finally packed varies with the season, rarely exceeds a length of three feet.
scarcely any being used at the beginning of winter. Fin- Sturgeons with the snout prolonged in an extraordinary manner, of glutin. of the North-American and North-Asiatic faunas of the recent period.
The twenty species of sturgeons (Acipenser) are nearly STURM, JACQUES CHARLES FRANcOIS (1803-1855), The Common Sturgeon of Europe (Acipenser sturio) occurs on the son of Madame de Stael, he subsequently resolved, in all the coasts of Europe, but is absent in the Black Sea. Almost conjunction with his school-fellow Colladon, to try his all the British specimens of sturgeon belong to this species; it fortune in the French metropolis. Sturm soon made crosses the Atlantic and is not rare on the coasts of North America.
It reaches a large size (a length of 12 feet), but is always caught the acquaintance of the foremost mathematicians in singly or in pairs, so that it cannot be regarded as a fish of corn- the capital, and obtained employment on the Bulletin mercial importance. The form of its snout varies with age (as in Universel. On the discovery of his important theorem the other species), being much more blunt and abbreviated in old regarding the determination of the number of real roots of than in young examples. There are 11-13 bony shields along the back and 29-31 along the side of the body. a numerical equation which are included between given Acipenser giildenstddlii is one of the most valuable species of limits, on 23d May 1829, he rapidly rose to fortune and the rivers of Russia, where it is known under the name " Ossetr"; public honours. He was chosen a member of the French it is said to inhabit the Siberian rivers also, and to range east- Academy in 1836, became "repetiteur " in 1838, and in wards as far as Lake Baikal. It attains to the same large size as Acipenser stellatus, the " Seuruga " of the Russians, occurs the Academy, of which his admirers have said, with some likewise in great abundance in the rivers of the Black Sea and of the Sea of Azoff. It has a remarkably long and pointed snout, like pardonable exaggeration, that an impartial posterity will the sterlet, but simple barbels without fringes. Though growing place them by the side of the finest memoirs of Lagrange. only to about half the size of the preceding species, it is of no less Sturm died at Paris on the 18th December 1855.
more than a million of this sturgeon are caught annually. Australian explorer, was born in England, and at an early The sturgeon of the great lakes of North America, Acipenser age entered the army, in which be reached the rank of rubicundus, with which, in the opinion of American ichthyologists, captain. Having landed in Australia with his regiment the sea-going sturgeon of the rivers of eastern North America, (the 39th), he became interested in the geographical proAcipenser maculosus, is identical, has of late years been made the object of a large and profitable industry at various places on Lakes blems which at that time were exciting general attention. Michigan and Erie; the flesh is smoked after being cut into strips A first expedition (1828) led to the discovery of the and after a slight pickling in brine ; the thin portions and offal are Darling river; and a second, from which the explorer boiled down for oil; nearly all the caviare is shipped to Europe. returned almost blind, made known the existence of Lake One firm alone uses from ten to eighteen thousand sturgeons a year, averaging fifty pounds each. The sturgeons of the lakes are Alexandrina. For some time Captain Sturt was surveyor-unable to migrate to the sea, whilst those below the Falls of Niagara general of South Australia, and he afterwards filled the are great wanderers; and it is quite possible that a specimen of post of colonial secretary. The first session of the South-this species said to have been obtained from the Firth of Tay was Australian legislature (1851) voted him a pension of really captured on the coast of Scotland.
inhabits the Caspian and Black Seas and the Sea of Azoff, whence in former years large shoals of the fish entered the large rivers of STUTTGART, the capital of Wiirtemberg, lies in the about 115 miles west-by-north of Munich. It is charmingly situated among vine-clad and wooded hills, and stands at a height of nearly 900 feet above the sea. The town is intersected from south-west to north-east by the long and handsome Konigs-Strasse, dividing it into an upper and lower half. In all its main features it is essentially a modern town, and few of its principal buildings are older than the present century. Many of its modern edifices are, however, of considerable architectural importance, and the recent revival of the Renaissance style is perhaps nowhere better illustrated than at Stuttgart. The lower or south-eastern half contains both the small group of streets belonging to old Stuttgart and also the most Environs of Stuttgart. important part of the new town. A large proportion of the most prominent buildings are clustered round the spacious Schloss-Plat; on or near which are the following edifices : - the new palace, an imposing structure of the 18th century, finished in 1806 ; the old palace, a building of the 16th century, with a picturesque arcaded court ; the Ki5nigsbau, a huge modern building, with a fine colonnade, containing ball and concert rooms, shops, &c.; Plan of Stuttgart.
Palace. I 5, Town-house. I B. hospital Church.
Old Palace. 6. Theatre. 9. Orphanage.
PrInzessen Petals. 7. Crown - Princes 110. Museum of Art.
Collegiate Church. Palace.
the so-called Akademie, formerly (1775-94) the seat of the Carls-Schule, where Schiller received part of his education, and now occupied by the king's private library and by guard-rooms ; the new courts of justice ; the palaces of the crown prince and of Prince William ; the Stiftskirche, or collegiate church, a fine specimen of 15th-century Gothic ; the extensive royal stables ; the new post-office ; the theatre ; and the central railway station, one of the handsomest structures of the kind in Germany. In the centre of the Schloss-Platz is the lofty jubilee column erected in memory of King William I. ; in the court-yard of the old palace is a bronze equestrian statue of Count Eberhard with the Beard; and adjacent is a fine statue, designed by Thorwaldsen, of Schiller, who was a native of Wiirtemberg. Among the other principal buildings are the polytechnic and architectural schools, the Late Gothic Leonhardskirche and Spitalkirche, the fine modern Gothic church of St John, the new Roman Catholic church, the neat little English church, the synagogue, and several handsome villas and mansions, chiefly in the resuscitated Renaissance style.
The art collections of Stuttgart are numerous and valuable. The museum of art comprises a picture gallery, an almost unique collection of casts of Thorwaldsen's works, and a cabinet of engravings. The royal library contains about 350,000 printed volumes, including what is said to be the largest collection of Bibles in the world, and also 4000 MSS., many of great rarity. To these may be added the industrial museum, the cabinet of coins, the museum of natural history, the fine collection of majolica in the new palace, and the museum of antiquities. The city also contains numerous excellent educational establishments, though the state university is not here but at Tubingen, and its conservatorium of music has long been renowned. Stuttgart is the centre of the publishing trade of South Germany, and has a busy industry in everything connected with the production of books. In various other industrial departments it also takes a high place, its manufactures including machinery, textile fabrics, pianos and other musical instruments, artists' colours, chemicals, sugar, and chocolate. Its trade is considerable. The population of Stuttgart in 1885 was 125,510, showing an increase of 7 per cent. since 1880. Four-fifths of these arc Protestants. The town proper contains about 110,000 inhabitants, while the above total is made up by adding the populations of the suburban villages of Berg, Gablenberg, and Heslach. Stuttgart is the headquarters of the 13th corps of the German army, and contains a comparatively large garrison, for which accommodation is provided in three extensive barracks within the town and on the outskirts.
To the north-east of the new palace lies the beautiful palace park, embellished with statuary and artificial sheets of water, and extending nearly all the way to Cannstatt, a distance of over two miles. Cannstatt, a town with (1880) 16,205 inhabitants, is not officially incorporated with Stuttgart, but may be looked on as practically forming part of it. Its beautiful situation on the Neckar, its tepid saline and chalybeate springs, and its educAional advantages attract numerous visitors. In the environs of Stuttgart and Cannstatt lie Roseustein, the Solitude, Hohenheim, the Wilhelma, and other royal chateaus.
Stuttgart seems to have originated in a stud ("Stilton Garten ") i of the early counts of Wiirtemberg, and the first mention of it occurs in a document of 1229. Its importance is of comparatively modern growth, and in early Wiirtemberg history we find it overshadowed by Cannstatt, the central situation of which, on the Neckar, seemed to mark it out as the natural capital of the country. After the destruction of the castle of Wiirtemberg Count Eberhard, however, transferred his residence to Stuttgart (1320), and in 1432 it became the recognized capital of all the Wiirtemberg territories. Even as capital its growth was slow, and it enjoys little prominence in history. At the beginning of the present century it d i id not contain 20,000 inhabitants, and its real advance begins with the reign of King William I. (181671864), who exerted himself in every way to improve and beautify his capital. In 1849 Stuttgart was the place of meeting of the so-called "Rump Parliament" (Rnmpfparlament). Among its eminent natives are Hegel (b. 1770), the philosopher, and Hauff (b. 1802), the poet and story-teller.