Speech-sounds

tongue vowel hears position sounds english speech sound syllable flated

SPEECH-SOUNDS, the sounds actually used for the conveyance of thought by speech. See PHONETICS.

Symbolization. - It is necessary to have some system of writing speech-sounds, in order to talk of them. The system used in the present article is the palaeotype of the present writer's Early English Pronunciation. All letters or words thus written will be enclosed in (). The following preliminary list of the ordinary sounds, with examples, will render what follows intelligible. For an alphabetical list, see art. 20.

English.-1. beet bait baa bought beat boot (biit beet baa bAAt boot bunt). 2. knit net gnat knot nut nook (nit net nut nat not nick). 3. file foil fowl fuel (fa'il fa'il fa'ul fiu•il). 4. hay (het). 5. pea bee, toe doe, cape gape (pii bii, too doo, keep geep). 6. whey way, feel veal, thin then, seal zeal, rush rouge, hue you (whet wee, fill viii, thin dheu, sill ziil, rash ruuzh, Jhluu Juts). 7. ear ring, gull little rig, gal lit'1). 8. sum chasm, sun open, sung (sam krez'm, son oop'n, sag). 9. chest jest West djest).

Foreign. - F French, 0, German, IT Italian. 10. bate F, Itiche F, nd IT, dma F, fete F, VCUS F, vent F, vent F, vent F, un F, SOi?L F, soi F, lssi F (bEEt, laasli, no, dyy, fa, wet; ven, van, VOA, ten, site, lyi). 11. dash teich, tage siege, wahl, all 13 (,dakh ,taaglre, ziigjhc, bhaal). 12. paglia IT, besogne F (p571ja, b2zonj).

.Nature of Speech-Sounds. - Speech-sounds result from shocks given to the air by the organs of speech, received by the drumskin of the ear, and transmitted to the auditory nerves in the cochlea. The apparatus is explained by Helmholtz, who deals with musical sounds. But speech is not musical, and its sounds are much obliterated when rendered musical.6 An original quality of tone generated by the vocal chords is modified by the cavities through which it passes, as explained by Helmholtz (Sensations of Tone) on the principle of resonance. There are three ways in which speech-sounds may be produced - (1) by the air in the mouth, without additional breathing, by smacks and clicks ; (2) by drawing in air, as orally in chirps, whistles, sobs, gasps, and nasally in snuffles, snores ; (3) by expelling air, as in the greater number of speech-sounds. The last are either fated, the vocal chords being wide apart and hence not vibrating, but allowing breath to pass freely, or voiced, the vocal chords being close together and vibrating fully, or else whispered, the vocal chords approximating but not touching, and their edges only vibrating. The last is only a variation of the second and needs no further consideration. Flated and voiced sounds are either fixed, the position of the vocal organs remaining unchanged throughout, or changing, the position constantly altering from one fixed position to another, forming "glides."

Generic and Specitic Speech-Sounds. - Fixed speech-sounds, intended to be the same, vary from speaker to speaker, and in the same speaker at different times. Those who attempt to write sounds from dictation rapidly find that they have to disregard these specific differences, and simply discriminate genera. And much difference of opinion has always existed as to the discrimination and number of genera.

Vowels, that is, vocals, are so called because their positions allow the voice-sounds to pass with least obstruction. The three genera (ii, aa, uu), which have always been distinguished, differ greatly in the positions of the tongue and lip, that is, in their mouth cavities, and hence resonance. The usual method of describing speech-sounds is by the shape of the cavity, width, however, could be shown to be insufficient for many reasons. As differently shaped cavities resound to a note of the same pitch, Helmholtz proposed the last -for discrimination. The pitches of (ii, aa, uu) are widely different, (ii) having the highest and (uu) the lowest ; but the extreme diversity of results in attempting to assign the actual pitch of vowel cavities shows that this will not suffice. Resonance cavities do not create but merely modify original vowel qualities of tone, and these last seem to depend upon the will of the speaker, guided by his powers of appreciation and imitation, both extremely variable, partly hereditary, partly depending on conformation of brain, and partly acquired during adolescence.

Melville Bell, Sweet, Storm, and Sievers, and all who have latterly examined the subject distinguish at least two series of vowel genera, that is, two forms of each genus, called " narrow " and "wide "; but they are far from being agreed as to what the difference consists in and how it is produced. Sweet differs from Bell, and Sievers does not wholly agree with Sweet. All, however, call (ii, uu) narrow; and (i, u) wide.

Besides these two series Bell introduced another distinction applying to both, termed "rounding," consisting in a greater or less closure of the lips, slight for (AA), much for (uu), and intermediate for (oo). But this character is not scientifically precise, because all the vowels can be produced with the mouth wide open (by means of a compression of the arches of the palate), and still more easily with the mouth at least as much closed as ordinarily for (uu). Other phonetists wish to introduce distinctions based upon the shape of the apertures between the lips.

There is also a feeling of intermediateness between vowel-sounds. Thus (yy) is felt by many to lie " between " (ii, uu), and (cece) between (oo, ee). But we also have other intermediates which arise spontaneously when listening to new languages and dialects. Thus in west Somerset there is a vowel between (a, i), one between (y, 2), and another between (2, ce), and the positions for these vowels have not been ascertained. These are only specimens of numerous cases. Hence the positional discrimination breaks down at present. Nevertheless it is very good so far as it goes, but must not be pressed to extremes.

All the vowels may be also fiated and whispered ; that is, the position and dictating vowel-intention remaining, the totally or partially open vocal chords forbid voice and produce sound more or less recognized as substitutes for the true vowels. Write (ii) voiced, (`ii) whispered, ("ii) .flated. This distinction becomes of more importance for consonants.

F on. (4) An exaggeration of (;) gives Arabic (gain) the bleat, with a rattle in the cartilaginous glottis.

Physems are the bellows-actions of the lungs. (1) The jerk (n) or sudden puff of either vocalized or flated breath, accompanying either clear or gradual glottid. The first, with voice only, is the singer's and Bengali aspirate ; the second, with flatus, is the Scotch or German aspirate. (2) The wheeze (h), Arabic stated by Czermak to arise from suddenly forcing breath through the cartilaginous glottis.

aah), &c. In English it is felt very difficult to preserve the positions for long (ee, aa, oo), and these vowels gravitate to, without by any means reaching, (i, a, u). The first and last may be written (ee'j, oo'w), implying what are termed vanishes or gliding alterations of sound, accompanied by alterations of position as the vowel ceases. This change is generally unintended and mostly used unconsciously.

Diphthongs. - But there are conscious changes to quite different positions. The first and last vowels are then taken as fixed, one of them having the chief stress, and there is a vowel glide between them. These form diphthongs ; the stress and glide being the chief characteristics are marked by ('), and the two elements are juxtaposed. The glide is generally short and close in English, longer in German, still longer and looser, or "slurred," in French and Italian. There are many typical classes. i. With weak final (i), unanalysed (a'i), analysed (Ai, Ai, a'i, a'i, &c., all very common. iii. Weak final (y), theoretic German en(6y, Ay), Devonshire ow (o)'3715). iv. Wreak initial (i) or (i), used for (s) in Italy, France, Wales, &c. v. Weak initial (y) in Fr. vi. Weak initial (u) or (h), used for (w) in Italy, Spain, France, Wales, &c. vii. Murmur diphthongs ending in weak (u), common in English, but generally with the option of trilling an (r) after it, and hence written (a), as in ear, air, oar, lord, poor, pure, pyre, power (ia, ee.i, oo.f, lAAJd, puns, pima, pa'u2); the r is always trilled in Scotland. viii. The vanish diphthongs (ee'j, oo'iv), just considered. ix. Inchoant diphthongs, first grave, where the speaker begins too low and corrects himself, as (ii, du), and secondly acute, where he begins with the mouth too open and corrects himself as he proceeds, as (a'o) ; both are common in English dialects.

S. Glides front and to Mutes, Post-Aspirates, Sonatas. - The essence of the diphthongal character was the glide, which was independent of the sounds of the first and last elements. These might be absolutely mute, a8 in (piip, tAAt, kook) peep, taught, coke, in which (p, t, k) are mere positions without sounds. But the results are quite different from (ii, AA, oo), because while the consonant positions are opened out the vowel is at the same time sounded. Similarly in the reverse order, when final. But here the enclosure of the breath is felt to be uncomfortable, and, if there is no vowel to fall upon, the mouth is opened and a puff of flatus (‘), called the "recoil," is heard in England, as (pulp') peep ! Using then ( + ) for the gliding sounds, we have (p + ii + p + '); but there is no recoil in (p + ii + p + + q) or (p + ii + p b + oo'w !) peeping, peep-bo ! Various nations 'lave very different habits in this respect. In Indian languages (p') would be felt as a final post-aspirated mute. So initially in Germany, the (p) position is usually released, not on a vowel with a clear glottid, as in England . and Italy, but on a vowel with a gradual glottid, as (NH), and hence flatus is heard before the vowel. When this is exaggerated, as (milli) or (pHihii), we have the true Indian post-aspirated mute.

But an attempt to utter the vowel through a mute position may be made before the position is quite opened out, or the vowel may be continued into it after it has been assumed. This gives the English, Italian, and Indian " sonant," as in (beet)) babe. The German is not quite the same. Here the glides are (b + ee + b), with possibly a voiced recoil (b + ee+ b + '), where (') represents the most amorphous voice. This voiced recoil is strong in French, but seldom heard in English, except in declamation, is regular in modern Indian, and impossible to a German, who says at most (beebp') or (beep') ; also Indians and Irish sometimes jerk out their vowel after sonants, as (bueeba'), producing the sonant post-aspirates. The ancient Indian never ended words in the pause with sonants, post-aspirated mutes, or post-aspirated sonants, but only with simple mutes, and avoided the recoil.

Glides to and from Hisses, Buzzes. - In the case of a hiss, flatus passes through the consonant position and is continued part of the time during which the vowel position is assumed, but towards the end of that time voice is put on. Hence in (s + ii) see, the glide ( + ) is partly flated and partly voiced, so that (s) acts in much the same way as a gradual glottid ; similarly when final, as (s + ii + s) cease, where the hiss replaces the recoil. But the proportion of voice and flatus in the glide may vary. The voice may be put on during the hiss, and then the change takes place in the hiss position. The result, far less clear than a vowel, is a hiss (s), followed without a positional glide by the buzz (z), then an entirely vocal glide, the vowel, and a vocal glide, a buzz, and a hiss, as (sziizs) seize, sees. The initial (sz) is regular in Germany, where no vowel precedes, as sie sehen (szii zee'n), they or you see ; and the reverse (zs) is regularly in English seize (siizs) in the pause, and similarly (haavf, briidhth, ruuzhsh, djadjshj) halve, breathe, rouge, judge. In the south-west of England Saxon words beginning with s, f are pronounced with (z, v) initial, which passes through (sz-, fv-) to (s, f).

Glides to and front Flaps. - Flaps are consonants where there is a slack organ which flaps with the breath as it passes. The r is very varied, but properly voiced, though the dated form occurs. The flap may be made (1) with the lips, as (brh), used in Germany to stop horses ; (2) with the tip of the direct tongue, (r„r), used in Italy; with the tip of the reverted tongue, (a), used in the south of England and in modern (not ancient) Indian, where it is called " cerebral " ; (3) with the uvula, (r), common in France and north Germany, labialized (no) in Northumberland, and harsher in Greek and Arabic ; (4) with the glottis, (u), usual in Denmark ; and so on. In the educated south of England the tongue is often raised to the (r) position, but not allowed to flap, and is treated as a buzz (r0).

The above form the central flaps ; if the point of the tongue is fixed and the voice escapes by the side it causes minute lateral flaps of the tongue. The place of the point of the tongue discriminates the various sounds which differ but slightly - (1), advanced tongue at gums, Continental ; (1), corona], tongue near the crown of the palate, English ; (L), reverted, in connexion with (a) in south-west England.

Both flaps, especially the latter, are extremely vocal, and the glides from and to them are like those from and to vowels, while they glide readily to and from mutes, sonants, hisses, and buzzes.

Glides to and front 'Ants, Orinasals. - For (p, t, k) both nasal or oral passages are cut off, the former by pressing the uvula against the back of the pharynx. Let this pressure be relaxed so that the nasal passage is opened, the oral passage remaining closed. The voice passes through the nose, forming the three hums (m, n, q). The glide from these to ordinary vowels is the same as from (b, d, g), and the peculiarity consists in the preceding hum and the closing of the nasal passage as the vowel position is assumed. If the nasal passage is left open at all the vowel is "nasalized," and as it resounds partly in the nose and partly in the mouth it becomes an " orinasal." Four principal orinasals exist in French, as an, on, an, via (aA, OA, ceA, veA) ; there are more in Portuguese, and many others in the modern Indian languages. The oral vowel is altered in character by nasalization, and it is not possible to assign the oral to the orinasal form precisely. If the oral passage is only slightly open, a "nasalized tone" is produced, as in Gaelic, some south German, and American dialects, written as (a,). The hum also may be prolonged, and ('mpaa, 'mbaa, 'nta,a, 'ndaa, 'qkaa, 'qgaa) result. These forms exist in South African languages.

The final hum may be continued like a vowel. If the nose entrance is closed and the voice continued (lim, koom) become (limb, lmmb, koomb), which, as the ordinary spelling shows, were probably once pronounced. But not only the nasality, the voice itself may be eut off, and then we have the mere stops (p, t, k), thus (limp, lint, liqk), which in the pause have the recoil. Some phonetists consider (m, n, q) to become flated in this case, as (mh, nh, qh). This is no more necessary than to suppose a vowel to be flated before a mute, so that (imp, mwt, hmk) lap, mat, hack should be (1"tep, li"a!k), a usage unknown.

the position for (s) tight up against the extreme back of the hard palate so as to produce a complete stop. The most important of the palatalized letters are (lj, nj), the Italian gli, gn in miglior, ognor onja. r), where the palatalization brings the Italian advanced (1„n) to the position of the English (1, n). The (lj) has degenerated to (1) or (J) in France during the 19th century. It exists in Spanish 11, Portuguese 17f. The (nj) exists as gn in French, n in Spanish, and nh in Portuguese.

Parallel to the palatal are the labial forms, of which English queen, guano (kwiin, paw no) are examples. They seem to exist in abundance in French, as in toi, doigt (two., ,dwa). The palato-labial form (wj), as in juin (zhwjeA), is much disputed, and a diphthong (zhyeA) is usually assumed.

Syllables. - A group of speech-sounds increasing in volume from a mute, sonant, hiss, buzz, or flap to a full vowel and decreasing again to one of the former constitutes the ideal syllable (o-O.A.ai34, collection). The initial and final parts may sink to clear glottids, and the middle part to a simple vowel. The type of a syllable is then < >, crescendo followed by diminuendo, as in (,aa, Taal, tIaait`, stiaaits), theoretical, and (djadjd, streqkth, twelfths), actual syllables. The hisses or recoil before or after a stop are not felt as belonging to fresh syllables, because they have no vowel, which is the soul of the syllable. Monosyllables present no difficulty, but the division of syllables in polysyllables is not easy to understand. In (pii + p + iq) the middle (p) ends one set of glides and begins another. One syllable ends and the other begins with the assumption of the (p) position which is absolutely mute, so that the end of the first and the beginning of the second syllable are simultaneous, as the end of one hour and the beginning of the next. In this case (p) is said to be "medial." But there may be and often is a sensible pause between the two syllables, and then (p) is said to be " double," as (pii + pp + iq, piippiq), in which case no recoil can be used, as (piip‘piq). In " syllabizing," a totally artificial process, doubling is necessary, and very frequently the recoil is used, but it never is in speech. In (sii + s + iq) ceasing, there is a sensible hiss between the glides which end the first syllable and those which begin the second, and the syllable divides during that hiss. If we wished to produce the effect of doubling, we must break the hiss into two either by a silence or a diminution of force, as (missent). The same remarks hold for sonants, buzzes, and flaps, where we have a sensible voice sound during which the syllable divides. Syllables may even divide during a vowel, as French pa yen, fayence, vaillant (paYeA, faIans, vaiaA), where the syllable divides during (1), which may even be lengthened to show the two syllables ; but, if the syllables have to be sung to notes with a pause between them, we must double the (1), thus (pal Yee, fal hits), as either (pal en, fal ans) or (pa Ten, fa saes) would be unintelligible. The sensation of separate syllables is always easy. It is the essence of versification, the oldest form of literature.

Accent and Emphasis. - Generally several syllables form a single word, and in many languages - by no means all languages - one syllable in a word is rendered conspicuous. Several plans have been adopted for this purpose.

Quantity or length of syllables, which seems to be all that is known to modern Indians, Arabs, and Persians.

Heightened or lowered or descending gliding pitch (con portamento) of one syllable, which were the acute, grave, and circumflexed syllables of Sanskrit, Latin, and Greek, the position of these syllables in a word there depending partly on the quantity of the syllables and partly on sense ; this pitch difference remains in a more complicated form in Norwegian and Swedish. (3) Greater force given to one syllable ; this is the English, German, and Italian "stress," and from the end of the 3d century A.D., when the feeling for quantity faded, was used instead of high pitch in Latin and Greek. The modern Italian and modern Greek as a general rule preserve the memory of the syllable which had the high pitch by giving it greater force, with but few exceptions, as Italian cad•re riedere, to fall, to laugh. (4) By a peculiar pronunciation, as the "catch " of the Danes. In French none of these methods seem to be consciously adopted. Some declare that the last syllable (not counting mute e) always has the stress, others that it never has the stress ; others, again, consider the stress to be intentionally even, and when altered to depend mainly on grammatical construction, while there is certainly a raised pitch, frequently towards the close of a phrase or sentence, but sometimes on a penultimate syllable. Turks and Japanese have also even stress. All these modes of rendering a syllable conspicuous are apt to be called "accent," the Latin translation of 7rpocrySia, the song added to the word, which properly applied to class (2) only. Where pitch accent prevailed there may have been also stress, but that stress was probably as little subject to strict rule as alteration of pitch is in English speech, where it undoubtedly exists, without properly affecting signification. Hence we may say roughly that in Latin and Greek pitch was fixed and stress free, but in English and German stress is fixed and pitch free.

What accent is to a word, emphasis is to a sentence. But there is this difference. Accent always falls on a fixed syllable of a word. Emphasis varies with the word to be made conspicuous. Emphasis does not consist merely in making the stressed syllable of a word louder. It depends upon a number of most subtle varieties of qualities of tone, length, and pitch of utterance, - in short, of those tricks and wiles of speech which form the stock-in-trade of actors and orators. The same words will mean totally different things according to the place and nature of the emphasis used. Different nations emphasize differently. To an Englishman French emphasis is apt to seem placed on the wrong word.

Intonation. - Although musical accent does not exist in English, almost every county has its peculiar sing-song mode of utterance. And even among educated men the sing-song may frequently be heard in public speaking, or in declaiming poetry, or recitation, or reading aloud generally. For these things no invariable rule exists. But in England questions require the pitch of the voice to be raised, and affirmations to be lowered, towards the end of a clause. In Scotland the pitch is raised in both cases, so that to an Englishman a Scotchman seems to be always asking questions.

These positions being insufficient, altho igh supposed to be precisely known, may be "modified " by raising the tongue more (a') or lowering it more (a,), or bringing it nearer the teeth (,a) or nearer the throat (a,). And, even this not sufficing, Mr Sweet has contrived a number of new modifiers, here passed over. And with all this none of the sounds can be produced purely through any position without an effort of will dependent on a conception of the sound. The characteristic of the vowel notation contrived by Mr Bell is that each sign shows at once the position of the sound in the Table.

SPEECH-SOUNDS These signs will be referred to as S 8 c, or Sweet, line 8, col c, giving (n). The consoi ants are modified in a similar manner to the vowels. Columns a b, c indicate straits or contacts between the palate and the parts of the tongue named. By the "blade " is meant the part of the tongue between the "front" and the "point." Mr Sweet's substitutes for glottids and physems, and his and Mr Bell's notation of glides are omitted for brevity. Their notation throughout is entirely different from that here used.

Vowel Fri gram.

15u 14 u 13 o 120 11a 10 A 9a The meaning of this arrangement is that, if we pronounce the vowels in the order of the numbers, they will form a sufficiently unbroken series of qualities of tone, or, if each line be so pronounced leading to 8=22 a, three series of the same kind are produced, and also that the speaker feels that the vowels in the middle line lie " between " the vowels in the first and third lines between which they are written. These intermediate characters refer only to qualities of tone and not to the vowel positions, as they apparently slid in the older "vowel triangles" from which the trigram is adapted. The arrangement of Mr Bell is excellent for showing the relations of the positions, but gives no more clue to the relations of sound than the indispensable ratios 1 : 2, 2 : 3, 3 : 4, 4 : 5, 5 : 6 give to the musical sensations of the intervals known as the octave, fifth, fourth, major third, and minor third. Hence the advantage of this additional arrangement. It will be referred to as T 6, that is, trigram, vowel 6, or (se).

Consonant Table.

372 x Voiced (IT n.1 ,n This table will be referred to as C iv 7, or consonant table, class Iv, column 7 = (z11). The glottids and physems are sufficiently explained in art. 5, and are here omitted.

Abbreviations. Abbreviations.

AR. Arabic. PL. Polish.

Melville Bell. Pa. Portuguese.

A. J. Ellis's consonant S. .Sweet's consonants table (art. 19). (art. 18).

DE Danish. 8N. Sanskrit.

E. A. J. Ellis. sP. Spanish.

English. St. Storm.

French. Sv. Sievers.

German. Sw. Sweet.

IT. Italian. Own. Swedish.

LLB. Prince Louis - Lucien T. A. J. Ellis's vowel Bonaparte. trigram (art. 19).

Ls. Lowland Scotch. V. Bell's visible speech A. (a ah a'i a'u an a'y, al, a ah, A, u).

(a) V 6, T 8 ='P 22, short G mann, long E father, art. 6. (ah) V 18, T 7, occ. E pass, path.

(Si)! art. 7 i, unanalysed diphthong, E eye, G ci.

(a'u) art. 7 ii, unanalysed diphthong, E how, G base.

(all) art. 11, F vent, a conventional form.

(a'y) art. 7 iii, unanalysed G freude, often (a's).

(a') or (a) with higher tongue, 1T and F short a, nearly = (ah).

(a) V 10, T 9. B. hears it in E father, arms, alms ; K does not.

Sw. and E. hear it in as father, E. and LLB. in F diable, E. in F pite, pas.

(ah) V 23, B. says (A) with advanced tongue = (,A), (A) on the road to (a).

(A) V II, T 10, short open in E authority, long closed E awl, almost peculiarly E.

certainly be considered impossible from a knowledge of a few languages to construct an alphabet which will serve for all. Nevertheless a consideration of some partial schemes is of great value as a stepping-stone. We give Mr Melville Bell's vowel system and Mr Henry Sweet's alteration of Mr M. Bell's consonant system, both supposed to be universal, but neither properly appreciating Asiatic, African, and American-Indian languages and habits of speech. After these follows a modification of a confessedly partial system by the present writer, applying chiefly to English, German, Italian, Spanish, and French, with a few partly theoretical sounds, introduced to show connexions. In all these the sounds will be expressed by palaeotype symbols without any explanation in the tables themselves, because that is furnished at better length than would there be possible in the alphabetical list of art. 20.

Mr. Melville Bell's "Visible Speech" Vowel Table.

Tongue Tongue Back. I Mixed. Tongue Front.

Height. n. w. nr. wr. aa. w. Sr. WT. S. w. sir. ter.

(a) V 2, T 19. B. hears it in E dungeon, motion, conscious, abandon, honour, bellows. E. hears it in these syllables and in E parental, capable, capacious, China, and a gabe. Sw. and Sv. hear (a) in all these cases.

(in, cell).

(w) V 34, T 6, a gnat, almost peculiarly a.

(:eh) V 36. B. hears it as a Cockney substitute for on, ow in out, now, which E., a born Londoner, does not know. Sv. finds it to be " open " a o, see (y).

(b bh brh, b1, bh„ n).

(b) S 7 g, C ii 13, art. 8, a bee, ebb.

(bh) S 5g, Civ 12, CI 10, lips flat, not touching teeth, see (ph). (brh) C vi 13, used by Germans to stop horses, as wo ! is in England. (b,) C ii 12, sonant of (p,), which see, theoretical.

(bh,) S 6 g, sonant of (ph,), which see, theoretical. (a) C ii 11, sonant of (a), which see, theoretical.

C. (a oh, o'i, c gh, 9 ch).

(a) V 12, T 11, E knot, almost peculiarly E, replaced on the Continent by (o, oh, oh), which see.

(oh) V 24. B. calls it an advanced (a), that is (,a), and hears it as regular short Irish-English o, Cockney ask, American Chicago. Sw. hears it in swD son. Sv. gives no example. E. does not know it.

(a'i) art. 7 i, diphthong E foil, by some taken as (A'i).

(9) reverted (s), the under part of the point of the tongue against the palate. St.1 hears it in East Norwegian horse and also in SWD.

(9h) reverted (sh), SN. II, the under part of the point of the tongue against the palate, but lower than for (9) and pointing further back, see (TJ).

(e) buzz of (9), theoretical.

(A) reverted (Ai), buzz of (9h), see (DJ).

D. (d dh dj„d, dh„ d, D DJ b TO).

(d) S 7 e, C ii 8, E doe, sonant of (t), which see.

(dj) art. 12, a judging, consonantal diphthong = (djzhj), usually assumed as (dzh), and also as sx V, for which see (gj), and An which Lepsius thinks was also once (gj).

(111) S 5 d, Civ 10, E then, MG I, AR :3, buzz of (th), see (dh,).

(dj) C ii 6, Hungarian gyongy, pearl, art. 12.

(,d) S 7 d, C ii 9, F doux, tip of tongue against gums, used in some midland and northern E dialects before r, -er.

(dh,) Civ 10, SP lid, lisped (z), retracted (dh).

(d) An (daad), described by Lepsius as close emphatic (.,11), see (s, t, z) and especially (a).

(n) C ii 7, reverted or cerebral sN 1., common in south-west England, in connexion with (R), which see, by some taken to be retracted (d,), parent of E (d).

(DJ) a reverted consonantal diphthong = (D +911), heard in Wiltshire (aRDj) ridge.

(Dh) reverted (dh), under part of point of tongue against teeth, theoretical.

(b) Irish Gaelic dair, an oak, " broad " post-aspirated sonant.

The place of tip of tongue unimportant, but generally taken as dental or interdental. Essential points, tongue laterally expanded and slack, back raised, leaving a hollow " front. ' Followed by a slow voice glide, resembling a preponderating a (sh) mixed with (gh). This glide, occurring between a sonant and a vowel, is closer at first than for an ordinary buzz and then more open. Constantly used for (dh) by Irish speakers of E. [Lecky, MS. communication.] (13j) Irish Gaelic deas, palatalized or slender (b) ; glide from it like preponderating (a) mixed with (z). [Lecky, MS. communication.] E. (e en, e, E, o oh, al, a eh, al, a, a'o).

(e) V 30, T 4, E net, sr e, medial between F and IT close and open (c, a), often (a) in dialectal E. B. hears it only long in E there. Sw. gives F Aire, which E. hears with (Ea). Sr. gives a men, a manner, ahre, DN tram. LLB. hears it always and only in unaccented IT syllables.

(en) art. I], orinasal, F vin, conventional symbol.

(e) V 29, T 3, F di, a dire. B. says it is found in a always and only in the vanish (ee'j), art. 6 ; but E. hears the vanish from received speakers only in the pause, otherwise he frequently hears (se) without vanish. Sw., Sv., and St. do not admit (ee) in E without vanish.

(E) V 33, T 5. B. considers it the regular E sound in net, see (e).

E hears it long in a sprache, F bite, IT open e. Sw. hears it in E air, Is men, r vim (vEn). Sv. also in DN Lira.

(a) V 17, T 20. E. hears it in his a nut, which B. wrote (rat) from E.'s dictation ; many think (a,a) are used respectively in a accented and unaccented syllables where E. hears (a, a), and he is very familiar with (a) in dialects. Sv. gives "stage " gabe, me normal gave, awn Bosse.

(oh) V 21. Sw. gives a bird, where -E hears (a). B. heard it only in Somerset sir and Cockney penny ; the whole effect of the first appears to E. due to Somerset (R), the second he does not know.

(a1) intermediate between (a) and (i), written ii in Mr Elworthy's West-Somerset grammar, a very common and characteristic sound in the dialect, but difficult and strange beyond it.

(a) V 31, T 17, F feu, pen. B. hears it in F del, belt and in Ls. E. hears it long in a hale. Sv. says the a sound is (cece), not (as), see (y).

(oh) V 35. B. hears it long in F peur, a sclione, &c., short in F jeune, a stocke. E. hears (as) in schone and (ce) in the rest. See Sv. in (y).

(al) intermediate between (a) and (ce), a common west Somerset sound ; possibly Sv.'s "open G See under (y).

(a'o) art. 7 ix, acute inchoant diphthong.

F. (f, j).

(f) S 1 i, C iii 11, E feel, lower lip against upper teeth.

a turned f, a modifier,laxly used ; see mute and sonant (kj, gj), lateral flap (1j), nasals (nj, dj) and consonant diphthongs (t; dj, TJ DJ).

G. (g gs gh gj gjh grh gw gwh, G oh).

(g) S 7 a, C ii 3, art. 8, E gape, egg.

(g1) S 7 b, C ii 5, SN V, sonant of (kj), which see, and also (d1).

(gh) S 5 a, C iv 3, mid a tage, buzz of (kh), which see, and also (gjh, gwh).

(gj) C ii 4, IT la ghianda, sonant of (kj), which see, formerly common in E before (a, re), as guard, garrison, now generally preserved in girl, even in the vulgar form (gjwl).

(grh) C vi 3, Alt E(grliain), or (gh) with the uvula slightly trilled, frequent Dutch g, arc -y before (a, o, u) in a mild form ; Lepsius takes the AR sound to be (ah), which see.

(gwh) C iv 2, c auge, fuge, sonant of (kwh), which see ; labialized (gh) after (u).

(a) C ii 1, sonant of (a), which see, theoretical.

(ah) buzz of (a), see above under (grh).

(h) when no letter, and, at most, some sign precedes, used for the unanalysed physem, art. 5 • after a letter very laxly used as a modifier of vowels (ah oh), and consonantal hisses or buzzes (th dh sh zh kh gh), &c.

(91) simple flatus, the (h) omitted when another letter precedes, as in the recoil (beep`) hap, art. 8.

('h) the crudest voice producible, opposed to (`h), the (h) omitted in the voiced recoil (ded') dead, art. 8, and in ('1, 'm, 'n, 'r) syllabic.

(T.h) smack or click, art. 2, (1), the (h) is omitted after consonants showing the clicking parts, as (k:r., tjT, II) guttural, palatal, unilateral, dental, and reverted click, see the turned numerals (8 j, z g 8), which are used for brevity.

(h) art. 5, physem (2), the Alt (itaa), or "wheeze."

(1) art. 5, physem (1), the " jerk " or unflated aspirate, used as post-aspirate after Indian sonants, as sx a (bus).

(riih) jerked flatus with gradual glottid, art. 5, physem (1), the usual aspirate of Scotland and Germany, and the Indian post-aspirate after mutes, thus SN tq 4l dare (loilh„tnih, (path), usually written 1h, th, ph, but not to be confused with the palaeotype (kh, th, ph).

I. (i is iia, iii, 1).

(i) V 25, T 1, short F fil (Very different from E fill), long a feel.

(ia) art. 7 iv, typical initial weak (i) diphthong, often confused with (aa).

(iii) art. 7 vii, typical murmur diphthong with following permissive trill.

V 26, T 2, a knit, almost peculiarly E and Icelandic, but often heard in Germany ; long E (ii) is often replaced by (ii), especially before and after (r) and in singing.

(ii) art. 7 ix, typical grave inchoant diphthong.

(i) V 27. B. hears it in c fiber, gliick ; SW. in F lime, where B.

hears (y) ; E. inclines to (s) in a, but Sr. thinks differently, see (y).

J. (j 'j j, J JI1).

(j) a modifier, symbol of palatalization, art. 12, but this simultaneous palatal action is constantly confused with successive (J, ('j) art. 7 viii,used to express the vanish of (cc, e) towards (i), ending in an approach to the consonant (4, thus (ee'j, c'j).

(j) or (j) without a dot, marks a semipalatalization, the tongue being only approximated to the palatalizing position, observed in several Uralic languages by LLB.

(J) S 5 b, C iv 5, E yea.

(A) S 1 b, C iii 5, E hew, hue (Ant), hiss of (J) very close to flated ("ii), art. 4.

K. (k kj kh kj kjh krh kw kwh, K K11).

(k) S 3a, C i 3, E cape, perfectly mute, art. 8.

(4) is more like 'w (Itjnili) or post-aspirated (kj), which supplies the necessary hiss.

(kh) S 1 a, C iii 3, a dach, sr j, see (kjh kwh).

(kj) C i 4, IT la chiave, palatalized (k), art. 12. In the 17th and 18th centuries constantly used in E before (a, w), it may be now constantly heard in London before ou in count, called (kjE'unt), or finer (kjeunt) for (ka'unt).

(VI) C iii 4, G teich, palatalized (kb), confused with (.111) by German theorists, but the back of the tongue is higher for (kjh). English people confuse it with concave (sh), which it ought never to approach, though it comes near convex (slij). Either (kjh) or (kjh), the though of (kj), which was not distinguished from (A), was the original SN IT, now called (sh) and confused with Tr, properly (0), see under C. (krh) C v 3, AR a (kh) with the uvula slightly trilled, as in Dutch ch ; Lepsius considers both to be (Rh).

(kw) C i 2, art. 12, E queen (kwiin), not (kwiin).

medans and often by Egyptians the j is lost or rather written krh grimt el s z), which Lepsins takes to have the values (o RR oh .,c11, .,11, .d111) respectively ; this "consists in a modification of the vowel by narrowing [the passage below] the soft palate"; these letters are called high' by the Arabs because of this very high back of the tongue. They call the emphatic pronunciation " thick, rough, fatty." In fact (a) becomes (a), (o) remains, (e, i) become (a, 1„), (u) is scarcely changed. Europeans recognize the consonants mainly by this vowel change.

(Rh) hiss of (a), considered by Lepsius to be the proper sound of what is here written as (krh).

L. (1 lj I]h lh lj IS 1$11, '1„1 ,lh, / lh, L Lh, I Ij, ib, a).

(1j) S 6 b. Sw. says " (1) formed in the place of (a)," and hears it in IT gli, as, 11, PR lh, where LLB. and E. bear (lj).

(lfh) S 2 b. B. says it is " a variety of defective a," theoretical.

(lh) S 2 c, C vii 8, flated (1), not Welsh U. B. hears it before (t) in felt, as (fElht). E. hears no trace of it, any more than he hears ("e) in (wet).

(lj) C viii 6, art. 12, IT gli, sr 11, PR lh. LLB. and E. hear this as a palatalized E (1), not Continental (,l), the palatalization having retracted the CD.

(16) C viii 8, voiced form or buzz of unilateral Welsh 11, sec (1311).

(1S11) C vii 8, or more conveniently (lhh), Welsh put tongue in position for (1), raise the left side to touch the palate, let flatus escape by the right side. The tongue is then in the position assumed after making the unilateral click (tj3:1:), see (:h) under H. This nnilaterality is insisted on by Salesbury,' and E. was thus taught in Wales. Sw.2 also insists on it. Some Welshmen do not.

(,1) S 6 d, C viii 9, F Tait, the tip of the tongue against the gums, as is usual out of England.

(,Ih) S 2 d, C vii 9, flated (j), (me. F people. 3 Welsh Pronunciation, 1550.

(1) S 6 a, PL guttural or " barred " 1, that is, 1 with a slanting line drawn through it. The back of tongue is raised as high as for (E). St.3 finds E 1 after a vowel in the same syllable half guttural ; this is unknown to Englishmen.

(Eli) S 2a. B. calls it "the hiss of a water-fowl," the hiss of (1), theoretical.

(a) C viii 7, reverted 1, the underpart of the point of the tongue coming against the hard palate, used in conjunction with (R) in south-west England, as world (waun'a). Those who used retracted (r,) say (war,d,'1,).

(Lh) C vii 7, flated form of (L), theoretical.

(I) Irish Gaelic " broad " 11, as in alt. (the 1 being written singly because of the following t; at the end of a word it is always written 11), tongue in the same position as for (n), which see, but with the lateral emission of the / class. [Lecky, MS. communication.] (Ij) Irish Gaelic " slender" //, as in Irish Gaelic, mill ; this bears the same relation to (1) as (tj) does to (t), see (tj). [Lecky, MS. communication.] (0 turned 1, the gradual glottid, art. 5.

(1h) an exaggerated form of the gradual glottid, art. 5, and see (Eih) under H.

(-u) turned a, DS ret, glottal r. Donders says "sing a note as deep as possible, and then try to sing a lower one, the voice will he replaced by a peculiar crackling noise," which is (a) ; it is the common form of DS r.

M. (m mh 'm, z').

(m) S 8 g, C x 13, art. 11, E mune/fang.

(mh) S 4 g, C ix 13, fated form of (m). B. hears it before mutes in place of (m), as camp (kfemhp); E. does not, art. 11.

('m) syllabic m, a chasm (krez'm).

(iv) turned at, C vi 12, a defective r in vewy (verti) very, differing from (brh) by having tight and flat in place of loose and round lips, with minute instead of considerable excursions of the flap.

N. (n nj nh nj, n ,nh, 'n, N, tl nj).

(n) S 8 c, C x 8, E no, tongue as for (t), mouth open or closed indifferently, as the tongue is an effectual stop, art. 11. (nj) a nasalized (1j), which those take to be IT gn who assume IT gl to be (1j), sec (nj, qj).

(nh) S 4 c, C ix 8, Hated (n), used in Cumberland for initial X:21, in know (nhoo). B. hears it before mutes, as in bent (baulit) ; E. does not, see art. 11.

(nj) nasalized (dj), the tongue lies along the palate in the same way as for (dj), but the nasal passages are now open. LLB. and E. hear it as palatalized E (n), not (,n), IT gn, SP ft, PR nh, F gn. St.4 takes the F sound to be (qj). E. has not detected (qj) in native F speakers, after long-continued express observation.

(,n) S 8 d, C x 9, F slain, tongue on gums.

S 4 d, C ix 9, fated (,n), theoretical.

('n) syllabic (n), E open (oop'n).

(N) C x 7, reverted (n), tongue as for (T), SN south-west E 21.

in CO11110.1;1011 with (a), as (haus) ran.

(n) Irish Gaelic " broad " nam, as in drant (the n not doubled because of following t), tongue as for (t, b), which see, but with nasal passages open. [Lecky, MS. communication.] (nj) this bears the same relation to (n) that (tj) does to (t), Irish Gaelic " slender " nn, as iu binn. [Lecky, MS. communication.] , (o) V 8, T 12, short IT open o, nb, long in E ore (00.1), which is fast degrading in London to (AA's).

(oh) V 20. Sw. and Sr. hear (oh) and neither (o) nor (oh) in homme, which E. hears as (om), very different from E (am). B. hears (oh) in colloquial eloquence, philosophy, opinion, and American whole, in all of which E. hears (o).

(on) art. 11, F vont, a conventional form, not to be confused with (an).

(ay) art. 7 iii, theoretic form of a cu, see (a'y).

(o) V 7, T 13. B. hears it short in E goer, mower ; E. in poetic, following. B. hears it when long in E always and only with the vanish (oo'w), art, 6, art. 7 viii. E. hears (oo'w) in the pause, but otherwise generally (oo), and (6ou) is always erroneous.

(oh) V 19. B. says this is a mixture of (o) with (r) or is (o) with advanced tongue, that is, (,o) ; he hears it in F homme (ohm), where E. hears (om), see (oh).

(E. (ce see ce'y, ce du, E, en a)).

(ox) V 32, T 18, F vcuf, a bocke. See Sv. under (r).

(wen) art. 11, orinasal F sin, cliacuft, conventional symbol. (ce'y) art. 7 iii.

(re) V 1. B. hears it in Scotch Gaelic laogh ; it may be produced by saying (uu) and suddenly opening the mouth, see (oc'u).

(ten) acute inchoant diphthong, art. 7 ix, or (uu.), begun with the mouth open and without internal rounding, very common in south Lancashire and Cheshire.

(cE) V 9. B. makes it the "narrow " form of (a), and the regular form of Ls up, come ; Sw. occ. Ls form.

(a)) V 22. B. hears it as the regular E sound of cr, ir, yr. Sw.

hears it in the first element of how (ha)'u), which E. finds dialectal.

(m) a dialectal south-west English sound of (n) through which a sound of (A, a) seems to run, and usually appreciated as the latter.

P. (p ph prh, p„ ph1, r).

(p) S 3 g, Ci 13, E peeping, perfectly mute, art. 8.

(ph) S 1 g, Ciii 12, Hungarian f, MG 0, an (f) spoken by the lips only without the teeth, mouth in position for blowing to cool, flated form of (bli), which see.

(prh) C v 13, flated form of (brit), common with babies before they can speak.

(Pi) C i 12, mute of (ph), the lips closed flat to form a complete stop, theoretical.

(phi) S 2 g, middle of lips in contact, flatus expelled from each corner of the mouth, theoretical.

(r) C i 11, mute of (f), lower lip forming a complete stop with upper teeth, theoretical.

Q. (q qj qjh qh qj).

(q) S 8 a, C x 3, E singer, finger, (g) with nasal passages open.

(q1) S 8 b, C x 5, SN sT, nasal of the .palatal series, see (kj gj)• Bopp considers it to be F gm, and Sw. hears it in F and IT ytt, SP 11, pit nit, in all of which LLB. and E. hear (nj) only.

(qjh) S 4 b, flated (qj), theoretical.

(qh) S 4 a, 0 ix 3, flated (q). B. hears it before mutes, as sink (siqhk) ; E. does not, art. 11.

(qj) C x 4, palatalized (q), different from (qj).

R. (r rh rsh, r rh„r ,rh ,r., r rh rw, r„ R R., a).

(rh) C v 8, flated form of (r).

(rsh) PL przez, tongue in position for (sh) with point flapped.

(re) S 5 c, C ii 8, imperfect ((.1), the tongue not quite in contact, almost (zhj) ; imperfect (r), the flap being omitted, considered by B. and Sw. as normal (r), a sign for flapping being added where a trill is used. Sv. makes E r before a vowel regularly (,ro). To E., a born Londoner, (re) before a vowel is very difficult to utter.

(reh) S 1 c, flated (r,), theoretical.

(,r) C vi 9, SP rey, IT re, fully trilled r with the point of the tongue advanced to the gums.

(,rh) C v 9, fisted (,r), occ. F ndtre.

(,r,) alveolar unflapped (,r), see (r,), possibly the "soft" SP r in amar, arado, breve.

(r) C vi 3, Parisian Paris, uvular r, art. 10 (3), resembling (grh).

(rh) C v 3, flated (r), common as a a final r in the pause, and then greatly resembling a faint (krh).

(rev) C vi 2, labialized uvular (r), regular in Northumberland. (r) untrilled uvular (r), heard faintly between vowels in Northumberland, in very, merry (valrei, inalrei), almost (v'ai, m'ai), like IT vai, (a) C vi 7, reverted or cerebral r, the underpart of the point of the tongue brought near the palate, and, according to E.'s observations, allowed to flap, but constantly asserted to be unflapped, see (ne). Common in modern Indian, not in sN, and found in Norway and Sweden.' The characteristic of south of England dialectal speech, and parent of received E r and the vocal degeneration of r, art. 7 vii. By some considered as greatly retracted (r,).

(Re) C iv 7, unflapped variety of (a), supposed to prevail for (n), which see.

(a) art. 7 vii, fully degenerated vocal (a), which may be followed permissively by a trilled or flapped (r), forming the murmur diphthongs.

S. (s sh shj sj, s ,sh, s, oj).

(s) S 1 e, C iii 9, a seal, hissing, with a convex tongue forming a central strait, the sides being held firmly by the palate and teeth, point tense and unruffled, with many unconscious varieties.

(sh) S lf, C iii 7, a rush, tongue retracted in respect to (s), upper surface rather hollowed than convex, see (ch, shj) and occ. lips projected, as E hush (hasha).

(shj) C iii 8, (sh) with convex tongue, tip somewhat depressed, second element in (tj=tjshj), High G s initial before p, 4 as spielen, stehen, where (sh) is not admissible.

(sj) C iii 6, FL kos', palatalized (s), art. 12.

(,$) C iii 9, point of tongue advanced nearly to teeth. LLB. hears it in Tuscan sharp IT lo zio, usually taken as (st,sio).

(,sh) advanced (shj), tongue convex and nearer the palate. LLB. hears it in Tuscan pece (pe•,she), and considers it the only proper sound of IT c before e and i, which is usually assumed to be (,t,sh) or (,tj); but an Englishman's (tj) is quite intelligible.

(s) AR. (saad), according to Lepsius a close emphatic s or (.s1), see (lc) and (d, 4 z).

(0j) Irish Gaelic ciste (,kjiltjtje,) treasure, s of the same series as (tj), which see. [Lecky, MS. communication.] T. (t tj th tj, t, th„ t, T Tj, t tj).

(t) S 3 c, C i 8, E too, tip of the tongue far behind the gums, generated by reverted (T), with which it is confused by Indians, who use their cerebral 7 7 for E (t, d).

(tj) E chest=(tjshj), art. 12, not to be confounded with (kj),which (th) S 1 d, C iii 10, E thin, Icelandic 1,, MG 0, AR 1.:.%), point of tongue against back of front teeth, hiss produced by flatus escaping between tongue and teeth, not necessarily between the interstices of the teeth, as Sw. says.

(tj) Ci 6, Hungarian ty, palatalized (t), art. 12, see (dj).

(,t) S 3 d, C i 9, F Las, usual Continental alveolar t, with the tongue against gums, sic 7, found in some midland and northern E dialects before r or -or, see (scl).

(th,) C iii 10, SP z everywhere, and c before e, i, voz zopo, cec6o cinto, lisped (s), tongue against gums, and hence a retracted (th), see (dh,). LLB. hears it in IT vizio, where it is generally assumed to be (,t,$).

(t) AR s (taad), which Lepsius describes as a close emphatic (.P), see (a).

(T) C i 7, reverted or cerebral sic Z, with underpart of the point of the tongue against the palate, common in south-west E in connexion with (a), parent of received E (t).

(Tj) consonantal diphthong = (Tch), heard in Wiltshire in connexion with (a), as (aarj) rich.

(t) Irish Gaelic " broad " post-aspirated mute, as in Irish Gaelic alt, La, tti. The place of the tip of the tongue is apparently unimportant, but it is generally assumed to be dental or interdental. The essential points are that the tongue is laterally expanded and slack, while the back is raised, leaving a hollow in the "front." It is followed by a slow flated glide, while the position changes to that of the vowel, resembling a greatly predominating (th) mixed with (kh). The voice is not put on till the vowel position is reached. This is constantly used for (th) by Irish speakers of English. [Lecky, MS. communication.] (tj) Irish Gaelic " slender " form of pest-aspirated mute, as in ailt, of a knuckle ; the tongue is spreading and slack ; the part nearest to the palate is about an inch on the inner side of the tip, being more towards the back than in the position for (s), the " front " being also raised ; the tip is not turned up and its position is unimportant. The glide of the post-aspiration sounds like a predominating (ali) mixed with (s), being tighter at first and looser afterwards than the E (ah). [Lecky, MS. communication.] U. (u tea,, u uh icu, ul, u).

(u) V 3, T 15, short E to unemphatic, F poule, replaced by (51) in E ; long E too. Some phonetists make the E long (uu) to be always (nu) or (uw).

(iia) art. 7 vi, where (5) replaces (w), F oie (5a), oiti. (hi), in soi, daigt, &c. LLB. considers that (s, ,d), &c., are labialized, art. 12.

(u) V 4, T 14, E fall, wood, woman, could, " wide " form of (u).

(uh) V 16. B. hears it in the "colloquial" use of E awful, fissure, nature, fortune (which E. does not understand), but says also that it is (u) with a raised tongue, and hence=(20). Sw. hears it in SWD upp, Sv. and St. in Norwegian huska.

(iti) midland E vowel replacing (a, a). E. feels it to be near (o1), or to be a "thickened" (u) ; Mr Hallam, to whom it is native, considers it to have the tongue intermediate to its position for (o, u), and the closure of the lips equal to that for (o), but made with flattened lips. In Yorkshire, Cumberland, and Westmorland it is replaced by (u), with which most received speakers confound it.

(u) V 15. Sw. hears it long in Norwegian and awn hits, ut, and says it is not far from F lune, but see (y). St.s considers it intermediate between (n, y).

V. (v, A).

(v) S 5 i, C iv 11, a veal, voiced (f), easy for E, F, IT, hopeless to 0, as (anuswaara), not (anuswaara). In Bengali both are called (b), which may be compared with SP (bh) for (b, v).

(A) a turned v, regarded as an imperfect N, without the last upstroke, IN, after a vowel represents F nasality, art. 11, and used also for that of PR and modern Indian, in which the nasality seems much harsher, written like Greek n.

W. (w wh, w wj, 'w).

(w) S 5 h, C iv 13, a we (wii), with which compare F vie (vii), oui (di) and a wie (bhii) ; possibly AR (wh) S 1 h, C iii 13, E whey, which, wheel, whale, as distinct from way, witch, weal, wail ; the distinction, however, is nearly obliterated by received speakers, who use (w) for both (w, wh), which is like saying veal, vale, vile for feel, fail, file ; yet they laugh at the Somersetshire peasant for using initial (v) for (f). Some consider (wh) to be (low), meaning (whw), and others to be (hii).

(w) a modifier to show labialization, art. 12, see (kw).

(wj) art. 12, symbol of LLB.'s presumed palato-labialization, by attempting to pronounce (y) at the same time as a preceding consonant, as F lui, unit, which on this hypothesis are (,lwji„novji), and not (,lyi„nyi).

('u') an indefinite vowel sound approaching to (u), towards which E (00) vanishes, art. 6.

Y. (3' YI) YD P Y)• (y) V 28, T 16. B. and E. hear this in F une. Sw. thinks the F sound to be (r). Sv., speaking of the two series of vowels (I a ah) and (y ce Rh), says what is equivalent to close a ft in fiber = (a), the lips being often pressed against the teeth ; open a in hiitte = (9,), somewhat more open than (a) ; close G o in schon = (CO ; open G o in bocke = (:ell). Sv. also makes F 44 in lime and DN y in lys = (1) ; F VG in pcu = (a) ; SWD ö in for = (oh), which last he believes to be the vowel nasalized in F UN, Sw. also makes DN y in lyst = (y) and F en in peuple = (ce) (yi) art. 7 v, F haile, see also (wj).

(Yo) intermediate between (y, a), frequent in west Somerset and Devon, where it replaces the received long (uu) and the received diphthong (iu).

(y) V 14. B. considers that E (i, i, e e) when unaccented tend to (y), as in return, limit, Saint Paul's, captain, there is, and regularly unaccented the. Sw. hears it as oce. E in pretty. E. has not observed this change.

(Y) V 13'. B. bears it long. in American sir. Sw.1 says " the only Russian vowel which offers any special difficulty is the al, first correctly identified by B. as (v)." Lepsius2 describes it as having (u)-tongue and (i)-lips, which would give (ce), and not (v). Sw.3 also identifies both North Welsh u and occ. y, as in sod, ty, with (v), replaced by (i) in South Wales. The FL and Bohemian y have the same sound.

Z. (z zh zhj zj, z ,zh, z).

(z) S 5 e, C iv 9, E zeal, buzz, not in SP or Indian.

(zh) S 5f, C iv 7, E division, F j. St.4 says the E and F sounds are different, the F being more dental.

(zhj) C iv 8, voiced (shj), found in E (dj = djzhj).

(zj) C iv 6, PL lea', voiced (sj), palatalized (z), art. 12.

(,z) C iv 9, IT lo zelo, according to LLB. Usually conceived as (,d,z), voiced (,$), which see.

(,zh) voiced (,sh), which see, heard by LLB. in IT regio, usually accepted as (,d zh), for which the Englishman's (dj) is sufficiently intelligible.

(z) AR 1; (zact). Lepsius considers this to be a close and emphatic (dh) - that is, (.dh1), see (K) - but that in some places it is incorrectly pronounced as an emphatic (.z) and in others as an emphatic (.,d).

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