HERMOSILLO, a town of Mexico, state of Sonora, is situated at the entrance to a valley of remarkable fertility near the river Sonora at its confluence with the Horcasitas, 40 miles south-west of Ures. Some of the principal houses are built-of stone, but most of the dwellings are of adobe. The town possesses two churches, a prison, and a mint. Its rise and early prosperity were clue to the discovery of gold mines in Sonora, but it now depends wholly on the fertility of the surrounding country, of which the principal products are cotton, wheat, grapes, and a great variety of fruits. The town is the commercial centre of Sonora. It has cotton manufactories, flour mills, and brandy distilleries, and carries on a considerable foreign trade by means of the port of Guaymas, which is 100 miles distant. The population is about 14,000.