GRODNO, capital of the province of the same name, stands on the right bank of the Niemen in 53° 40' N. let., 23° 50' E. long., and is connected by railway with St Petersburg, Moscow, and Warsaw. It is the seat of the provincial government, and contains eight Roman Catholic, a Greek Eastern and two United Greek Catholic churches, a Lutheran chapel, and two Jewish synagogues. The Government office is a splendid edifice, There are two fine palaces erected respectively by Stephen Batory, who died here in 1586, and Augustus III., kings of Poland. Among the other buildings are a public library, a school of medicine, a gymnasium, and several seminaries. The inhabitants (24,789) are engaged in the manufacture of woollens, silks, hats, paper, and the preparation of wax. Three fairs are held annually. Grodno was built in the 12th century, and at the commencement of the 13th was annexed to Poland. The Polish diet held there in 1793 ratified the second partition of Poland. Two years later Stanislaus Augustus, the last king, signed his abdication there.