Havelock, Sir Henry
cabul campaign william troops
HAVELOCK, SIR HENRY (1795-1857), an eminent British soldier, was the second of four brothers (all of whom entered the army), and was born at Ford Hall, Bishop-Wearmoutb, Sunderland, on the 5th of April 1795. His parents were William Havelock, a wealthy shipbuilder in Sunderland, and Jane, daughter of John Carter, solicitor at Stockton-on-Tees. When about five years old FTenry accompanied his elder brother William to Mr Bradley's school at Swanscombe, whence at the age of ten he removed for seven years to Charterhouse School. In accordance with the desire of his mother, who had died in 1811, he entered the Middle Temple in 1813, studying under Chitty the eminent special pleader. His legal studies having been abridged by a misunderstanding with his father, lie in 1815 accepted a second lieutenancy in the Rifle Brigade (95th), procured for him by the interest of his brother William. During the following eight years of service in Britain he read extensively and acquired a good acquaintance with the theory of war. In 1823, having exchanged into the 21st and thence into the 13th Light Infantry, he followed his brothers William and Charles to India, first qualifying himself in Hindustani under Dr Gilchrist, a celebrated Orientalist. At the close of twenty-three years' service he was still a lieutenant, and it was not until 1E38 that, after three years' adjutancy of his regiment, he became captain. Before this, however, he had held several staff appointments, notably that of deputy assistant-adjutantgeneral of the forces in Burmah till the peace of Yandabo, of which he, with Lumsden and Knox, procured the ratifications at Ave from the " Golden Foot," who bestowed on him the " gold leaf " insignia of Burmese nobility. His first command had been at a stockade capture in the war, and he was present also at the battles of Napadee, Patanago, and Paghan. He had also held during his Lieutenancy various interpreterships and the adjutancy of the king's troops at Chinsurah. In 1828 he published at Serampore Campaigns in A vct, and in 1829 he married Hannah Shepherd, daughter of Dr Marshman, the eminent missionary. About the same time he became a Baptist, being baptized by Mr John Mack at Serampore. During the first Afghan war he was present as aide-de-camp to Sir Willoughby Cotton at the capture of Ghazni, July 29, 1839, and at the occupation of Cabul. After a short absence in Bengal to secure the publication of his Memoirs of the Ablaut Campaign, lie returned to Cabul in charge of recruits, and became interpreter to General Elphinstone. In 1840, being attached to Sir Robert Sale's force, he took part in the Khurd-Cabul fight, in the celebrated passage of the defiles of the Ghilzees (1841), and in the fighting from Tezeen to Jellalabad. Here, after many months' siege, his column in a sortie en masse defeated Akbar Khan, April 7, 1812. He was now made deputy adjutant-general of the infantry division in Cabul, and in September he assisted at Jugdulluk, at Tezeen, and at the release of the British prisoners at Cabul, besides taking a prominent part at Istaliff. Having obtained a reiimental majority he next went through the Mabratta campaign as Persian interpreter to Sir Hugh (Viscount) Gough, and distinguished himself at 14taharajpAr in 1843, and also in the Sikh campaign at Mudki, Firozeshah, and Sobraon in 1845. For these services he was made deputy adjutant-general at Bombay. He exchanged from the 13th to the 39th, then as second major into the 53d at the beginning of 1849, and soon afterwards left for England, where he spent two years. In 1854 he became quartermaster-general, then full colonel, and lastly adjutant-general of the troops in India. In 1857 he was selected by Sir James Outram for the command of a division in the Persian campaign, during which he was present at the actions of Mohummarah and Ahwaz. Peace with Persia set him free just as the mutiny broke out ; and he was chosen to command a column "to quell disturbances in Allahabad, to support Lawrence at Lucknow and Wheeler at Cawnpore, to disperse and utterly destroy all mutineers and insurgents." At FuttelipUr, July 12th, at Aong and Pandoonudee on the 15th, at Cawnpur on the 16th, at Onao on the 29th, at Buserutgunge on the 29th and again on August 5th, at Boorhiya, on August 12th, and at Bithoor on the 16th, he defeated overwhelming forces. Twice he advanced for the relief of Lucknow, but twice prudence forbade a reckless exposure of troops wasted by battle and disease in the almost impraeticable task. Reinforcements arriving at last under Outnm, he was enabled by the generosity of his superior officer to crown his successes on the 25th of September 1857 by the capture of Lucknow. There he died, November 24, 1857, of dysentery, brought on by the anxieties and fatigues connected with his victorious march, and with the subsequent blockade of the British troops. He lived long enongh to receive the intelligence that he had been created K.C.B. for the first three battles of the campaign ; but of the major-generalship which was shortly afterwards conferred he never knew. On November 23, before tidinces of his death had reached England, letters-patent were directed to create him a baronet, and a pension of £1000 a year was voted at the assembling of parliament. The baronetcy was afterwards bestowed upon his eldest son ; while to his widow, by royal order, was given the rank to which she would have been entitled had her husband survived and been created a baronet. To both widow and son pensions of £1000 were awarded by parliament. See Marshman's LVe of Hareloc7• 1860.