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HAARLEM, a city of the Netherlands, the chief town of the province of North Holland. By rail it is 11 miles W. of Amsterdam, 19 S. of Alkmaar, and 20 N. of Leyden. Distant about 5 miles from the German Ocean, it communicates with the Znyder-Zee by the Spaarne and the 1j. The railway to Amsterdam was opened in 1839, and that to Alkmaar in 1867.
Haarlem is a typical Dutch town. The branches of the Spaarne and an extensive system of canals bring the ship-traffic into the heart of it, and turn its streets into so many quays. The roadways are paved with bricks; the houses have gable-ends with old-fashioned crow-steps; and everything wears a decent and quiet aspect, which to one man is dulness and to another "aristocratic gravity and modest coquetry." What the city lacks in liveliness it makes up by the interest of its historical associations and the number of its scientific and artistic institutions. The great market place especially has much that is worth seeing : the town-house and the cathedral of St Bavo ; the old meat market, a building of the end of the 16th century in the old Dutch style ; the stadsdoelen, or place where in former times the burgesses used to assemble in arms ; and the statue erected to Koster in 1856, when in Holland lie was still generally considered the inventor of printing. St Bavo's is one of the most famous churches in the Netherlands. It is a cruciform structure completed in 1539, and makes a considerable impression on the spectator by the great length (about 426 feet) of its main axis and the height and steepness of the roof. The tower is about 255 feet high. Within the lofty vaulting is supported by twenty very light columns, and there is a good deal of beauty about the perspective of its aisles. The organ, built by Christian Muller of Amsterdam between 1735 and 1738, was for some time the largest in the world, and is still celebrated for the sweetness of its tone, especially in the vox humana stop. It possesses four keyboards, 64 stops, and 5000 pipes, the largest of which is 15 inches in diameter. Among the monuments in the church are those of Bilderdijk the poet and the hydraulic engineers Christiaan Brunings and Fredrik William Conrad, the latter the projector of the sluices at Katwijk. In the belfry are the clamiaatjes, small bells presented to the town according to tradition by William I., the conqueror of Damietta. At the head of the scientific institutions of Haarlem may be placed the Dutch society of sciences (Hollancische Haatschappij van Wetenschappen) founded in 1752, which possesses very valuable collections in botany, natural history, and geology. Teyler's foundation (Teyler's Stichting), instituted in aceordance with the last will of Pietre Tcyler van der Hulst for the study of theology, natural philosophy, poetry, history, drawing, and numismatics, has various auxiliary collections in the founder's former residence, The Dutch society of industry, founded in 1777, is still active and flourishing, with branches established all over the country. In 1871 it instituted a colonial museum, which along with the royal museum of modern art is accommodated in the pavilion formerly the residence of an Amsterdam banker, Hope, and acquired. for the crown by King Louis Napoleon. The colonial museum presents a complete survey of the manifold products of the Dutch possessions in the East Indian Archipelago, and the royal museum has a collection of 250 pictures. Among the benevolent institutions of the city it is enough to mention the hospital for old men founded in 1608, and the beautiful 'Tyler's Hospital.
The staple industries of Haarlem have been greatly modified in the course of time. Under the counts of Holland cloth-weaving and brewing were in a very thriving condition ; but under Charles V. they lost enormously in importance. While 2U00 pieces of cloth had been manufactured annually in the end of the 15th century, 800 or 900 was the number for 1515 ; and the breweries diminished from 120 in 1494 to 95 in 1503, and by 1513 were no more than 77. After the revocation of the edict of Nantes, silk, lace, and damask-weaving were introduced by French refugees, and in course of time these industries gave employment to 10,000 of the population. About the close of the 18th century this remarkable prosperity was a thing of the past ; and it was not till after the Belgian revolution that Haarlem began to turn its attention to the various departments of manufacture in which it is now engaged, Cotton factories, carriage-works, bleach-works, cotton and silk dye-works, a famous type-foandry, oil-works, soap-works, breweries, and a factory for preserved meats are among the more important establishments. The extensive workshops of the Dutch railway company are also of value to the town. One of the printing establishments has the reputation of being the oldest in the Netherlands, and publishes the oldest Dutch paper, De Opragte Ilaarlenamer Courant. As market gardening, especially in the flower department, is largely carried on in the immediate vicinity, Haarlem is the seat of a flourishing trade in "Dutch roots," especially in hyacinths, tulips, fritillaries, spirmas, and japonicas. A considerable business is also done in the butter, cheese, and other agricultural produce from the surrounding country.
• it had increased to 39,455. A rapid decline took place in the 18th century ; from 26,281 in 1748 the number sank to 21,227 in 1796, and by 1815 it was nut more than 17,432. Seven years later we find 18,453 inhabitants, 21,667 in 1830, 24,012 in 1840, 25,852 in 1850, and 27,534 in 1860. The year 1374 showed 32,758, and three years later the number was no less than 35,692. In 1869 - 1870 there were 14,471 members of the Dutch Reformed Communion, 11,574 Roman Catholics, and 565 Jews.
Haarlem is mentioned in a register of the 10th century as Harden). From Count William H. it obtained a charter in 1245, and in the course of the following centuries it rapidly advanced in prosperity. In 1492 the insurgents called the " bread and cheese folk " got possession of the town, but before the year was out it was recovered by the imperial general Duke Albert of Saxony. The year 1493 was witness of a great conflagration, and in 1509 the plague claimed its many victims. In 1559 Haarlem became a bishop's see. The prominent part that its inhabitants took in the revolt of the Netherlands brought upon it an unparalleled disaster. Don Frederick son of the duke of Alva invested the town with 30,000 men in December 1573, and after a siege, in which the burghers defended themselves with admirable and pertinacious heroism, it was obliged to capitulate in July 1573. The conquerors, in spite of their promise of mercy, took barbarous vengeance, and it was not till July 1677 that the town was recovered from their grasp by the prince of Orange. In its subsequent history the main events are the inundations of 1775 and 1791, the arrival of the Prussians in 1787, and the quatercentenary celebration of the invention of printing in 1823.
See F. Allan, Gesehiedenis en besehrijving tam' Haarliin ran de vroogstc tyden tot op on.:e doyen onder metleicerking tan Edema, Enschede, en Geelings.
HAAlt LEM LAKE, or HAELEMTI ER MEER, a commune of the province of North Holland, constituted by the law of 16111 July 1855. It lies an area of about 46,000 acres, and its population has increased from 7000 in 1860 to 13,602 in 1878. As its name indicates, the commune was formerly a lake, and, according to Amersfoordt, this lake was a relic of a northern arm of the Rhine which passed through the district in the time of the Romans. In 1531 the Ilaarleminer Meer had an area of 6430 acres, and in its vicinity were three smaller sheets of water - the Leid'sehe Meer or Leyden Lake, the Spieling Meer, and the Oude Meer or Old Lake - with a united area of about 7600 acres. The four lakes were ultimately incorporated into one by successive inundations, and by 1647 the new Haarlem Lake had an area of 36,400 acres, which by 1740 was increased to 42,000. As early as 1643 Jan Adriaanszoon Lecghwater proposed to endyke and drain the lake ; and similar schemes, among which those of Nikolaus Samuel Cruquius in 1742 and of Baron van lajnden van Hemmen in 1821 are worthy of special mention, were brought forward from time to time. But it was not till 1836, when one furious hurricane on the 9111 of November drove the waters as far as the gates of Amsterdam, and another on the 25th of December sent them in the opposite direction to submerge the streets of Leyden, that the mind of the nation was turned odiously to the matter. In August 1837 the king appointed a royal commission of inquiry ; the seheme proposed by the commission received the sanction of the second chamber in March 1839, and in the following May the necessary law was passed. The first business was to dig a canal round the lake for the reception of the water and the accommodation of the great traffic which had previously been carried on. The canal was made 38 miles in length, with a depth of 9 feet, and a width of 130 feet on the west side of the lake and 115 feet on the east side. The preliminary works were not completed till 1845. The area enclosed by the canal was rather more than 70 square miles ; the average depth of the lake was 13 feet 1.44 inches ; and as the water had no natural outfall it was calculated that probably 1000 million tons would have to be raised by mechanical means. A gigantic steam-engine designed by Messrs J. (MA) and A. Dean of London was erected and named in honour of Leeghwater. It could raise 112 tons at each stroke and discharge! 1,000,000 tons in 254 hours. The total weight of iron used for the engine, pumps, &C., was 640 tons, and the cost of the machinery and buildings amounted to £36,000. Two other engines of equal size and power were afterwards constructed by Messrs Harvey of Hoyle and Messrs Fox and Co. of Ferran, in Cornwall, the makers of the "Leegliwater." They were named respectively the Cruquins and the Yen Lijntlen. Pumping commenced in 1848, and the lake was they by the 1st of July 1852. At the first sale of the highest lands along the banks on August 16, 1853, 784 hectares were bought for 575,000 florins, or 733 florins per hectare ; but the average price afterwards was less. The whole area of 42,000 acres recovered from the waters has brought in 9,400,000 florins or about £780,000, so that the actual cost to the nation has only been 4,400,000 florins or £300,000, though the expense of time enterprise amounted to 13,787,377 florins or £1,080,000. The soil is of various kinds, loam, clay, sand, and peat ; most of it is sufficiently fertile, though in the lower portions there are barren patches where the scanty vegetation is covered with an ochreous deposit. Corn, seeds, cattle, butter, and cheese arc the principal produce. The roads which traverse the commune are bordered by pleasant-looking farmhouses built after the various styles of Holland, Friesland, or Brabant. lloofddorp, Venneperdorp or Nicuw Vennep, Abbenes, and the vicinities of the three great steam-engines are the. spots where the population has clustered most thickly. The first church was built in 1855; in 1877 there were seven. In 1854 the city of Leyden laid claim to the possession of the new territory, but the courts decided in favour of the nation.
A list of works on the Haarlem Lake is given by Curers van Endegeest, Du dessechement die Lae do Harlem (The Hague, 1849-1861, 3 parts, with plates). See also J. P. Amersfoordt, ]yet Harlcnonermeer, Haarlem, 1857, published by the Amsterdam illaatschapinj Felix Illeritis.