city west roman
HALIFAX, a city and seaport of British North America, capital of Nova Scotia, is situated on the south-east coast of the province on the declivity of a hill about 250 feet in height, rising gradually from the south-west side of Chebucto Bay or Halifax harbour, a deep inlet of the sea. The hill is commanded by a citadel about a mile in circumference and of great strength, and the harbour is defended by several forts and batteries. Originally the houses were chiefly of wood plastered or stuccoed, but the frequent recurrence of fires has led to a more general use of stone or brick as building materials. Many of them have an imposing and elegant appearance ; and the streets are spacious and regularly laid out, crossing each other at right angles. Including its suburbs the city is from 2 to 3 miles lung and about 1 mile broad. The principal buildings are the Government house, the official residence of the lieutenant-governor of Nova Scotia, a solid sombre-looking structure at the south of the town ; the provincial building, near the centre of the town, 140 feet long by 70 feet broad, with a fine Ionic colonnade, and comprising the Government offices, the post-office, the city library and the provincial museum; the parliament building, the courthouse, the admiralty house, the exchange, the Roman Catholic cathedral of St Mary, the rooms of the young men's Christian association, the Wellington barracks, the military hospital, the lunatic asylum, the workhouse, the jail, and the penitentiary. The educational establishments include the Dalhousie college and university, the St Mary's Roman Catholic college, the Presbyterian theological college, the High School, the almshouse of industry for girls, two orphan asylums, a blind asylum, a lunatic asylum for the Lower Provinces, two industrial schools, and nearly twenty public schools. A lighthouse has been erected on the 'west side of the entrance to the harbour on a small island off Sambro Cape. After passing Sambro the course for large vessels is to the west of M`Nab's Island, on which a lighthouse has also been erected ; but there is also a passage sufficient for small vessels to the east of the island. Recently a lighthouse has been erected on the west side of St George's Island opposite the city. Halifax is the seat of a considerable fishery. Its principal trade is with Great Britain, the British colonies, and the United States. In 1878 the number of ships that entered was 887, with a tonnage of 347,336. The value of imports was $1,991,205, and of exports $4,102,335. The imports are chiefly manufactures from England, manufactures and produce from the United States, and sugar, molasses, rum, and other products from the West Indies ; the chief exports are dried and pickled fish, timber, cattle, agricultural and dairy produce, fur, and whale and seal oil. Halifax is now used instead of Portland in the State of Maine as the winter port (the St Lawrence being closed with ice) for the Dominion of Canada. The principal industries of Halifax are ironfoundiug, brewing, distilling, sugar-refining, and the manufacture of woollen and cotton goods, paper, leather, tobacco, gunpowder, agricultural and musical instruments, carriages, machinery, candles, and soap. On account of its fine air and the beautiful scenery of the neighbourhood, Halifax has a high reputation as a watering-place. An abundant supply of water for the city is obtained from two lakes 2 miles distant. The city is the seat of an Anglican bishop and. a Roman Catholic archbishop. Nearly one-third of the population is Roman Catholic. It is named after the earl of Halifax, and was founded by Governor Cornwallis in 1749. In 1790 it contained only 700 houses and 4000 inhabitants. It was declared a free port in 1817, at which time the number of houses was 1200. The population in 1861 was 25,026, and in 1871, 29,582.