GRAZALEMA (the Roman Lacidulermium), a town of Spain, in the province of Cadiz, is situated on the great road from Cadiz to Ronda, 60 miles E.N.E. of Cadiz. It stands in a very strong position on a rocky hill, and to capture it was reckoned one of the chief feats of the esforzado Rodrigo Ponce de Leon. It possesses three hermitages, a parish church, and a convent. The manufactures are chiefly woollen, linen, leather, and soap, and there is considerable trade in sheep and swine from the neighbouring sierra of the same name. Inscriptions and other Roman antiquities still exist in the town. The population is about 6000.
.GRAZZINI, ANTONFRANCESCO (1503-1583), an Italian author, was born at Florence, March 22, 1503, of good family both by his father's and mother's side. Of his youth and education all record appears to be lost, but he probably began early to practise as an apothecary. In 1540 he was one of the founders of the Academy of the Humid (degli Umidi), and about forty-two years afterwards he took a prominent part in the formal establishment of the more famous Accademia della Crusca. In both societies he was known as Il Lasca or Leuciscus, and this pseudonym is still frequently substituted for his proper name. His temper was what the French happily call a difficult one, and his life was consequently enlivened or disturbed by various literary quarrels. His Humid brethren went so far as to expel him for a time from the society, - the chief ground of offence being apparently his ruthless criticism of the " Arameans," a party of the academicians who maintained that the Florentine or Tuscan tongue was derived from the Hebrew, the Chaldee, or some other branch of the Semitic. He was readmitted in 1566, when his friend Salviati was " consul " of the academy. His death took place on February 18, 1583. Il Lasca ranks as one of the great masters of Tuscan prose. His style is copious and flexible : abundantly idiomatic, but without any affectation of being so, it carries with it the force and. freshness of popular speech, while it lacks not at the same time a flavour of academic culture. His principal works are he Cene, a collection of stories in the manner of Boccaccio, and a number of prose comedies, La Gelosia, La Spiritata, I Parentadi, La Arenga, La Sibilla, Lcc Pinzochera, L'Arzigogelo. The stories, though of no special merit as far as the plots are concerned, are told with verve and interest. A number of miscellaneous poems, a few letters, and Four 0-rations to the Cross complete the list of Grazzini's extant works.
He also edited the works of Berni, and collected Tutti i Trionfi, Lain; 31-ascherate, e Conti Carnaseialasehl, amiati per Firenze dal tempo del magnifico LOrC7EZO de' Ofctlki find all' anno 1559. In 186S Adamo Rossi published in his Ricerehe per le biblioteehe di Perugia three " novelle " by Grazzini, from a MS. of the 16th century in the " Comunale" of Perugia ; and in 1870 a small collection of those poems which have been left unpublished by previous editors appeared at Poggibonsi, Alcune poesie indite. See Pietro Faufani's "Vita del Lasca," prefixed. to his edition of the Opere di A. Grazzini, Florence, 1857.