county east north dunbar name south acres miles hills lammermuirs
HADAD, the name of a Syrian deity, is met with in Scripture as the name of several human persons ; it also occurs in the compounds Benhadad, Hadadrimmon, and Hadadezer. The etymology of the word, of which Hadar, Ader, and Arad appear to be incorrect variations, is obscure; the divinity primarily denoted by it, however, according to Philo of Byblos (Miiller, Fr. Ms/. Gr., iii. 569 ; of Macrola, Saturn., i. 23), is the king of the gods, the greatest and highest, the sun ; and these interpretations seem to point to some such radical meaning as 2111iC718. The Syrian kings of Damascus seem to have habitually assumed the title of Benhadad, or son of Hadad (three of this name are mentioned in Scripture), just as a series of Egyptian monarchs are known to have been accustomed to call themselves sons of Ammon-Ra. The word Hadadrimmon, for which the inferior reading Hatlarrimmon is found in some MSS., in the phrase " the mourning of (or at) Hadadrimmon" (Zech. xii. 11), has been a subject of mush discussion. According to Jerome and all the older Christi in interpreters, the mourning for what occurred at a place called Hadadrimmon (Maximianopolis)• in the valley of Megiddo is meant, the event alluded to being generally held to be the death of Josiah; but since Hitzig and Movers the opinion has been gaining ground that Hadadrimmon is merely another name for Adonis or Thammuz, the autumn sun-god, the allusion being to the mournings by which the Adonis festivals were usually accompanied (llitzig on Zech. xii. 11, Isa. xvii. 8; Movers, Plennizie7, i. 196).
Full materials for the whole discussion will be found in Bandissin's Studien. Sent. Religionsgesch. (1876), Abh. v. This author, however, lies considerably modified his views in Herzog and Plitt's R. R., s. r., having in his earlier essay been misled in important points by statements of Schrader (Keilinseh. and A. T., pp. 101 seq.), which have since been found to require correction (see Gutschinidt, Nene Beitrage, p. 47 seq.; Wellhausen's criticism of liandissin in Gott. Gel. An:. (1877), Stiick 6 ; Schrader, Keilin. and Gesehiehtsforseh. (1878), pp. 371 seq., 538 seq.
HA.DDINGTON, or EAST LOTHIAN, a maritime county of Scotland, lies between 55° 46' 10" and 56° 4' N. hit. and betweeu 2° 8' and 2' 49' W. long. It is bounded on the N. by the Firth of Forth, on the E. by the North Sea, on the S. by Berwickshire, on the W. by Edinburghshire. Its seaboard is 31i miles. Its greatest length from east to west is 25 miles, its breadth from north to south about 16 miles. Its area covers 179,142 acres (280 square miles), of which 189r are under water, 5505 foreshore, and 142k in "links." The general outline of the county is that of an irregular quadrilateral figure with its northern angle projecting into the sea. Along a south-and-north line through the county town, the laud slopes gradually up from the coast to the Garleton Hills, thence down to the Tyne valley, and then up again to the Lammermuir Hills, which occupy the southern district of the county. On the east and west the ground slopes from the Lammermuirs to the sea, but near the sea the f ill is so gentle that the land has the appearance of a plain. Two almost isolated hills break the level, - North Berwick Law (612 feet) on the coast, and Traprain Law (724) in the eastern part of the Tyne valley. The chief summits of the Lammermuir Hills are Spartleton (1534), Lammerlaw (1500), and Sentra 'Hill (1230). The only stream of any importance is the Tyne, which, after a course of 7 miles in Midlothian, flows through the county with a gentle current north-east past the town of Haddington, and falls into the sea at Tyne-mouth. A very fine variety of trout is found in it; and below the rocks of the lien at East Linton salmon are occasionally caught. The Whiteadder rises in the county, and flows south-east into Berwick, Geology and Mineralogy. - The Lammermuirs are composed chiefly of Lower Silurian strata, overlaid in part by Old Red Sandstone and conglomerate - one great mass of the latter extending south-east from Spott, with a breadth of 3 or 4 miles, across the hills into Berwickshire. Another belt of Old Red Sindstone rather more than 1 mile in breadth begins at the sea a little to the south of Dunbar, and stretches along the base of the Lammermuirs. Patches of Old Red Conglomerate occur also here and there in the Lammermuirs further to the west, and are seen in the upper tributaries of Gifford and Humble waters. The ground to the north of the Lammermuirs is occupied chiefly by rocks belonging to the Calciferous Sandstone and Carboniferous Limestone series of the Carboniferous formation. The Calciferous Sandstones cover a wide area west and east of Haddington, extending south to the Lammermuirs, along the base of which they trend south-west beyond the county boundary. They also appear in the lower reaches of the Tyne valley, covering a considerable area between Tynninghame Links and Biel Water. Again they are seen on the shore between Torness Point and Dunglass Burn, whence they strike inland. The hilly tract between Haddington and North Berwick is made up of various volcanic rocks of Lower Carboniferous age, such as porphyrite, dolerite, and tuff. In the western part of the county the Carboniferous Limestone series occupies an extensive area and is rich in limestones and coal-seams. This area forms the eastern margin of the Midlothian coal-field. A patch of the Limestone series also appears upon the coast about a mile south of Dunbar. Besides these bedded aqueous and volcanic rocks, there are numerous intruded masses, dykes, and veins of felstone and basalt, and some pipes of tuff and agglomerate which mark the sites of ancient volcanoes of Lower Carboniferous age. Granite is found at Priestlaw. Deposits of glacial origin are met with more or less abundantly, especially in the low-lying tracts. These consist of till or boulder-clay and mounds and sheets of sand and gravel, underneath which the older rocks are often concealed over wide areas. Alluvial deposits occur along the course of many streams, but the only considerable alluvial flats are those of the Tyne.' Coal of a very fair quality is extensively worked in the west. So long ago as 1200 the monks of Newbattle obtained this mineral from Prestongrange. Limestone is found throughout the greater part of the shire. A vein of hematite of a peculiarly fino character was discovered in 1866 at the Garleton Hills, and wrought for some years ; but from a variety of causes the works have been meanwhile suspended.
Clinutte. - The climate is on the whole mild and equable. East winds, however, prevail in the months of March, April, and Nay, and from the lie of the county it is exposed to their full sweep. The amount of rainfall is far below the average of Great Britain. During the period 1835-64 the average animal rainfall was 24.85 inches, - the greatest fall being 32.7 in 1836, the least 17.3 in 1842. The average monthly fall is lowest in April (1.16) and highest in August (2•57). In 1872 the rainfall reached the exceptional amount of 41.51 incises.
Agriculture, &c. - The soils are various. The Lammermuirs are of course unproductive, but the slopes to a considerable height are cultivated ; and for a considerable way down the land is very good_ In the centre of the county there is "a tenacious yellow clay resting upon a tilly subsoil," and this lend is not well suited for agricultural purposes. Along the margin of the Firth the soil is naturally of a sandy nature, but farther inland it is composed of rich loans and is very fertile. The most productive region is the land about Dunbar.
The potatoes there are very good, and under the name of "Dunbar reds potatoes are highly esteemed in the London market, selling at times for as much as £45 an acre. From the beginning of the present century till within the past few years East Lothian agriculture has on the whole been held to be the best in Scotland. This is not so much due to the natural fertility of the soil as to the enlightened enterprise of its cultivators. Andrew Meikie here first introduced the threshing mill (1787). Tile draining was first extensively used here, and the reaping machine (now universally employed) and the steam plough were introduced at a comparatively early period of their history. The high price of grain at the time of the Crimean War gave a great impetus to farming, and in consequence rents rose as much as from ]5s. to £1 per acre ; this, with the increased cost of labour, which has risen 35 or 40 per cent. (about I Os. per acre) within the last seven or eight years, has sadly diminished the profits of the farmer. The size of the farms is above the average of Great Britain. The majority are from 200 to 500 acres - a very few from 600 to 1200 acres. They are usually let on leases of nineteen years' duration. The rotation of crops is generally the six•conrse shift, viz., (1) grass (pasture or hay), (2) oats, (3) potatoes, turnips, or beans, (4) wheat, (5) turnips, (6) barley.
According to the agricultural returns of 1879, of the total area of 179,142 acres 115,364 acres were under cultivation, distributed as follows : - corn crops, 44,719 (wheat, 7910 ; barley, 19,536 ; oats, 15,746) ; green crops, 25,656 (potatoes, 9835 ; turnips and swedes, 14,796) ; clover and grass, 27,194 ; permanent pasture, 16,000; bare fallow, 1075. Of live stock the numbers werehorses, 3818, or 3.3 for every 100 imperial acres as against a general average for Scotland of 4.2 ; cattle, 8205, or 7.1 as against 23.0 ; sheep, 108,672, or 94'2 as against 145.1 ; pigs, 2485, or 2.2 as against 2-7.1 Those comparatively small averages are of course explained by the fact that the county is not a pastoral one. It deserves to be noted, however, that its flocks of Leicester sheep have for years been justly celebrated, and shorthorns of a very high class have been successfully bred.
Game is no great hindrance to agriculture. A source of greater annoyance is the immense number of wood pigeons which, in defiance of all efforts to hold them in check, commit great havoc yearly.
The wages of farm servants average about 18s. weekly, the "grieve" or farm overseer receiving a little more ; but of this only from £20 to £25 per annum is given in money. The rest is paid in kind, and consists of meal, potatoes, a cow's keep, a cottage, and piece of ground. These cottages have been greatly improved of late years, and are now very fair dwellings indeed. The " bothy system is practically a thing of the past. Extra field labour is supplied by gangs of Irish or Highland workers, who dwell in the towns, but go out during the day to work in the country. The regular employCs are hired for the most part at " fecing-markets," though advertisement and private arrangement are also often employed.
According to the return for 1873-74, there were 1509 proprietors in the county owning a total 171,739 of acres, of the annual value of £349,209.2 The average rental was £2, Os. 8d. per acre, - that of all Scotland being £1. There were 1191 proprietors (79 per cent. of the whole) who owned less than 1 acre ; from 1 to 188 owned 10 acres, and. 47 from 10 to 100 ; and 9 owned between 5000 and 21,000, the largest proprietors being - Marquis of Twceddale, Yester House, 20,486 acres ; Lady Mary Hamilton, Biel, 14,345 ; Balfour of Whittinghame, 10,564 ; Earl of Wemyss, Gosford, 10,136 ; Sir G. Grant Suttie, ilalgone, 8788 ; Earl of Haddington, Tynniughame, 8302 ; Earl of Hopetoun, 7967 ; Hunter of Thurston, 6492 ; and Houston of Clerkington, 5148.3 Communication. - The county is well supplied with roads. The chief line of railway, however, 1111IS along the coast, and this, notwithstanding the aid of branch lines, places a considerable district at a serious disadvantage.
Population, &c. - The population of the county, which is divided into 25 parishes, was 37,676 in 1871, showing an increase of 78 over the number for 1861. It thus appears that the growth of the county town, of North Berwick, a thriving watering-place, and of the mining parishes does little more than counterbalance the decrease in purely agricultural parishes, which in some cases amounts to as much as from 7 to 18 per cent. The chief towns and villages are - Haddington, the county town, 4004; Dunbar, 3422 ; North Berwick, 1418 ; Tranent, 2306 ; East Linton, Prestonpans, Aberlady, Gullane, and Dirleton. The county returns one member to parliament, and the burghs of Haddington, Dunbar, and North Berwick unite with Lauder (Berwickshire) and Jedburgh (Roxburghshire) in returning another.
Educational Endowments. - The provision for education outside of the public school system is inconsiderable. Schaw's and Stiell's Hospitals in the parishes of Prestonpans and Tranent are charitable educational institutions. In Salton parish there is a fund for educational purposes, left by Gilbert Burnet, bishop of Salisbury. According to the Endowed Schools' Report of 1875, the annual incomes of these were £864, £812, and £97 respectively. School and college bursaries are given annually by the East Lothian Association.
History and Antiquities. - The early Celtic inhabitants of the district have left as memorials of their possession a few local names, and sonic traces of circular camps (Garvald and Whittingham parishes) and hill forts (Bolton parish). The Romans built here no enduring edifices, and there are no certain remains of their camps, , but they brought the ground to a high degree of cultivation. The county afterwards formed part of the Saxon kingdom of Northumberland, but it was joined to Scotland by Malcolm 1 1. in 1020. It was fairly prosperous till the wars of Bruce and Balliol ; but from that time till the union of the kingdoms it suffered from its proximity to the English border, and from civil wars. In more modern times it was the scene of two great battles - that of Dunbar (1650) gained by Cromwell over Leslie and the Covenanters, and that of Prestonpans (1745) in which Prince Charles defeated Sir John Cope. The prosperity of the county, like that of many other parts of Scotland, is the growth of the present century.
The chief ruins are - Hailes Castle, where Queen Mary of Scots resided for a brief period after her abduction by Bothwell ; Dunbar Castle, defended in 1337 by Black Agnes against the earl of Salisbury ; Dirleton Castle, a venerable ruin of the 12th century, - taken in 129S by Edward 1. and again in 1650 by Cromwell's forces ; Innerwick Castle, near Dunbar ; the collegiate church of Seton in the parish of Tranent, built before 1390 ; North Berwick Abbey, founded about the middle of the 12th century; and Tantallon Castle, opposite the Bass Rock, formerly the chief seat in the east of the Douglas family. The genius of Scott has given to Tantallon name in English literature greater even than its name in Scottish history ; and readers of MarDilOil will also remeintar the name of Hobgoblin Hall, romantically situatod near the village of Gifford (about six miles south of the county town), a place connected by name and legend with all inanityr of popular superstitions. Of modern mansions the chief are Broxmouth Park (Duke of Roxbmghe), Lester House (Marquis of Tweeddale), Tynningliame House (Earl of Haddington), Gosford and Amisfield House (Earl of Wcmyss) - Gosford containing a tine collection of pictures, Lennoxlove Douse (Lord Blantyre), Biel and Archerlield (Lady M. Hamilton), Winton house (Lady Ruthven), and Salton Ball (Fletcher). A lofty column on one of the Carleton hills, erected to the memory of the fourth earl of Hopetoun, is seen from nearly every part of the county.
Of the eminent men born in or connected with the comity the following may be mentioned : - Sir David Lyndsay of the Mount was born 1490 at Carleton Cmtle, an old keep now utterly ruinous ; William Dunbar was born at Biel about 1460 ; Blair, author of the Grave, and Home, author of Douglas, were successively ministers of Athelstancford; David Calderwood, the historian of the kirk of Scot. land, was minister at Pencaitland, and Principal William Robertson at Gladsmuir ; George Ileriot, the famous goldsmith of James VI., is said to have been born in Gladsmuir. The historic families of Fletcher of Salton, Dalrymple of liailes, Maitland of Lcthington, and Hamilton of Preston belong to the county.