WAN-CHOW-FU, a prefectural city in the Chinese province of Chii-keang, and one of the ports opened by treaty to foreign trade, is situated (28° 1' N. lat. and 120° 31' E. long.) on the south bank of the river Gow, about 20 miles from the sea. The site is said to have been chosen by Kwo P'oh (276-324 A.D.), a celebrated antiquary who recognized in the adjacent mountain peaks a correspondence with the stars in the constellation of the Great Bear, from which circumstance the town was first known as the Tow, or Great Bear, city. Subsequently, however, the appearance in its vicinity of a white deer carrying a flower in its mouth was deemed to be so favourable an omen as to more than justify the change of its name to Lull, or Deer, city. Its present name, which signifies the " mild district," and which is correctly descriptive of the climate, though not of the inhabitants, was given to it during the last dynasty (1368-16-14 The walls, which were built in the 10th century, are about 6 miles in circumference, 35 feet in height, and 12 feet broad at the top. The gates, seven in number, were put up in 1598. Willi-chow is about 1563 miles by road from Peking and 600 from Hankow. The country in the neighbourhood of the town is hilly and pretty, while opposite the north-west gate "Conquest Island" forms a picturesque object. The island is, however, more beautiful than healthy. The port, which was opened to foreign trade in 1876, has not justified the great expectations which were formed of its probable success as a commercial centre.
In 1856 the imports (excluding treasure) were valued at £118,710, and the exports at £25,751; 44 vessels entered, of which one only was British, and 45 cleared. A noticeable feature in the year's return is the falling off in the quantity of opium imported, - only 25 piculs, 62 per cent. less than the average of the previous three years. The principal item of import is cotton goods, which showed an increase of 12 per cent. over the same average. kerosene oil, matches, window-glass, sugar, dates, and old iron are among the chief goods imported ; while among the exports kittysols or umbrellas, timber, oranges, and tea figure prominently.