wiirtemberg forest south feet black country north miles chief east
WfIRTEMBERG,1 or WtRTTEMBERG, a European king- See dom, forms a tolerably compact mass in the south-west sketch angle of the German empire, of which it is the third map factor in point of area and the fourth in point of population. In the south it is cleft by the long narrow territory of Hohenzollern, belonging to Prussia ; and it encloses six small enclaves of Baden and Hohenzollern, while it owns seven small exclaves within the limits of these two states. It lies between 47° 34' 48" and 49° 35' 17" N. lat., and between 8° 15' and 10° 30' E. long. Its greatest length from north to south is 140 miles ; its greatest breadth is 100 miles ; its boundaries, almost entirely arbitrary, have a circuit of 1116 miles ; and its total area is 7531 square miles, or about one twenty-eighth of the entire empire. It is bounded on the E. by Bavaria, and on the other three sides by Baden, with the exception of a short distance on the S., where it touches Hohenzollern and the Lake of Constance. For administrative purposes the country is divided into the four circles (" kreise ") of the Neckar in the north-west, the Jagst in the north-east, the Black Forest in the southwest, and the Danube in the south-east.
Wiirtemberg forms part of the South-German tableland, and is hilly rather than mountainous. In fact the undulating fertile terraces of Upper and Lower Swabia may be taken as the characteristic parts of this agricultural country. The usual estimates return one-fourth of the entire surface as " plain," less than one-third as " mountainous," and nearly one-half as " hilly." The average elevation above the sea-level is 1640 feet; • the lowest point is at Bdttingen (410 feet), where the Neckar quits the country ; the highest is the Katzenkopf (3775 feet), on the Hornisgrinde, on the western border.
The chief mountains are the Black Forest on the west, mean-the Swabian Jura or Rauhe Alb, stretching across the tains. middle of the country from south-west to north-east, and the Adelegg Mountains in the extreme south-east, adjoining the Algau Alps iu Bavaria. The Rauhe Alb or Alp slopes gradually down into the platem on its south side, but on the north it is sometimes ruggdd and steep, and has its line broken by isolated projecting hills. The highest summits are in the south-west, viz., the Lemberg (3326 feet), Ober-Hohenberg (3312 feet), and Plettenberg (3293 feet). In a narrower sense the name Rauhe Alb is reserved for the eastern portion only of the Swabian Jura, lying between Hohenzollern and Bavaria; in the narrowest sense of all it is applied to a single group near Reutlingen. Most of the isolated summits above referred to (none of which are over 2630 feet) project from this eastern section; among them are the hills of Hohenstaufen, Teck, Mossingen, and Hohenzollern.
The Black Forest (Germ. Schwarmald), a mountain group or Black system deriving its name from the dark foliage of its pine forests, Forest. lies partly in Wfirtemberg and partly in Baden. Its general shape is that of a triangle, its base resting on the Rhine between the Lake of Constance and Basel, and its apex pointing north. It stretches along the east bank of the Rhine from Basel to Durlach, at a distance varying from 4 to 15 miles from the river, and parallel to the 'Vosges range on the west bank. The south, west, and north faces of the group are rugged and steep, but ou the east it loses its mountainous character, and melts so gradually into the bounding plateau that it is difficult to assign it definite limits on that side. The total length of the Black Forest range is 93 miles, its breadth varies from 46 to 13 miles, and its area is 1913 square Gan-hwuy, China, is situated about a mile from the south bank of the Yang-tsze Keang river, with which it is connected by a straggling suburb. By the treaty of 1858 it was marked out as one of the treaty ports, but it was not opened to trade until 1877. At first its commercial progress was very slow, the neighbourhood of the older ports of Kew-keang and Chin-keang militating against its success; but of late years there has been a distinct improvement in the trade of the port, the gross value of which was £1,316,863 in 1885 and £2,011,327 in 1886. The principal exports are rice and silk piece goods, while next in importance come feathers, hides, nutgalls, and tea. For the production of feathers large quantities of ducks are reared in the surrounding districts. Of imports, opium is by far the most considerable item, amounting iu 1886 to 779,728 lb, of the value of £652,223. In the same year £126,093 worth of cotton goods were imported, and £124,014 worth of sugar. Of the minor articles, matches, needles, sandalwood, and window glass form the largest items. During the same period 1088 vessels entered the port (691 British, 362 Chinese). The city, which is one of the largest of its rank in China, was laid desolate during the T'ai-p'ing rebellion, but it is gradually becoming repeopled.
WUN, a British district in the chief commissionership of Berar, lying between 19° 46' and 20° 42' N. lat. and between 77° 26' and 79° 10' E. long., and containing an area of 3907 square miles. It is bounded on the N. and W. by Amraoti and Basim districts, on the S. by the Nizam's Dominions, and on the E. by Wardha and Chanda districts of the Central Provinces. Won is a wild hilly country intersected by offshoots from the Ajanta chain of mountains. For the most part the hills in the district are bare, or clothed only with dwarf teak or small jungle; but on the heights near Wan town the bamboo grows abundantly, and elsewhere small bamboos are found in the ravines. The Wardha and Painganga, which bound the district on the east and south, unite at its south-east corner. The Paingangi carries off nearly all the drainage of the district. Wan is rich in coal and iron ores. Of wild animals the tiger, leopard, and hyena abound; bears, wolves, and jackals are also numerous ; while small game is plentiful in all parts. There is a great want of means of communication ; during the rains cart traffic is entirely suspended, the only means of transit at this time of the year being that afforded by water from the Wardha for a short distance. The climate is enervating and unhealthy, and the average annual rainfall is about 41 inches.
Avila district forms part of the territory assigned by the nizam to the British Government under the treaties of 1853 and 1860. It was undisturbed during the mutiny of 1857. In 1886-87 the gross revenue amounted to 586,174, of which the land contributed £57,391. The population in 1881 was 392,102 (males 201,491, females 190,611); Hindus numbered 335,787, Mohammedans 17,031, Christians 127, and aboriginals 37,252. Wm, the chief town of the district (population 4207), has some fine temples.
miles. The average elevation decreases from south to north from 3280 feet to 2296 feet. The hills do not rise in peaks but in rounded summits and plateau-like masses and combs, separated from each other by the deep ravines of the streams.
The south part of the Black Forest was called Mons ilbnoba by the Romans, and the whole was known to them from the 3rd century as Silva Marclama. The name Silva Nigra appears in mediawal Latin. This retired district, always somewhat overshadowed by the majestic beauties of the neighbouring Swiss Alps, was long unvisited and almost unheard of. Within comparatively recent years, however, it has become a favourite resort for summer visitors and tourists. Though not boasting any very striking mountain scenery, the Black Forest includes romantic and wild vales as well as smiling and picturesque valleys ; and the beauty of its streams and waterfalls, its fragrant and shady forests, the quaintness of its sequestered villages, and the primitive simplicity of its inhabitants, who still retain their peculiar costume, are all objects of interest.
About two-thirds of the Black Forest belongs to Baden and the remaining third to Wiirtemberg; but it is convenient to disregard the political boundaries, and to consider it as formed of the Southern or Upper and the Northern or Lower Black Forest, separated from each other by the deep and romantic gorge of the Kinzig. The principal rocks are stratified gneiss and eruptive granite, though some of the summits are porphyritie. In the north and east those rocks are covered with a tolerably thick layer of variegated and red sandstone, which also appears, though not so abundantly, in the south and west. The kernel of the Southern Black Forest is the Feldberg (4803 feet), the highest point in the range, round which the other summits and masses are grouped. Among the chief summits are the Belchen (4640 feet), the Erzkasten (4218 feet), the Hochkopf (4150 feet), and the Kandelberg (4077 feet). The average height of the crest in this division of the forest is about 3300 feet. The chief streams are the Wutach, Alb, Wehra, Wiese, Neumagen, and Dreisam, all tributaries of the Rhine, and the Brege and Bregach, regarded as the head-waters of the Danube. On the eastern slopes lie the Feldsee, Titisee, Sehuehsee, and numerous other small lakes, most of them in bleak and solitary situations among the extensive moors. The waterfall on the Gutach, at Triberg, is 170 feet high. The central height of the Northern Black Forest is the Hornisg,rinde (3825 feet), on the border between Wiirtemberg and Baden. Other heights are the Hobe Ochenskopf (3460 feet), the Hohloh (3225 feet), and the Kniebishohen (3180 feet), with the Kniebis Pass. The average height of the crest is 2470 feet. The principal streams are the Kinzie and Murg, which join the Rhine, and the Glatt, Enz, and. Nagold, which fall into the Neckar. The eastern slopes of this division also are sprinkled with lakes, the chief of which are the gloomy Mummelsee and the Wildesee.
As the name implies, the Schwarzwald is largely covered with forests, chiefly of pines and firs. Oaks, beeches, &e., also flourish, especially in the valleys and towards the west. The timber trade and its cognate industries are thus the chief resources of the inhabitants. The felled timber is floated in the form of rafts down the numerous streams to the Neckar or Rhine, where larger rafts are formed, sometimes requiring a crew of several hundred men, for the voyage to Holland, the principal market. The increase of railways has, however, considerably diminished the quantity of wood thus exported by water ; and numerous sawmills within the limits of the forest are engaged in cutting timber into planks for export by rail. Perhaps, however, the most characteristic industry of the Black Forest is the manufacture of wooden clocks (often spoken of as " Dutch clocks "). This industry has long flourished, in the district, and has recently been organized. and extended, while considerable factories have been established at Furtwangen, Triberg, and other chief centres. Clocks to the value of about £2,000,000 are said to be annually produced, and 1400 persons are engaged in their manufacture. Musical-boxes are also extensively made here. Straw-plaiting occupies a large number of girls and women, especially in winter ; and glass-blowing, charcoal-burning, and potash-boiling are also carried on. Agriculture is of no great Importance, as the soil is poor, and the crops scanty. Cattle are kept in considerable numbers ; they arc driven up to the mountains in summer, and return to the valleys in autumn. The mining in- dustry is quite .insignificant ; coal is worked to a small extent in and near Rotheg,enden. In spite of their industrial resources, aided by the wealth introduced by tourists and visitors to the numerous mineral springs, the population of the Black Forest is too numerous to find support at home, and large numbers go abroad as pedlars, merchants, servants, &c.
The climate of the Schwarzwald is severe, but healthy. The forests cease at 4250 feet, and are succeeded by scanty grass and herbs. On many of the summits snow lies for ten months (n the year, yet in some of the valleys vines, almonds, and chestnuts ripen. Wild boars, deer, hares, foxes, and various kinds of game are found, The carriage-roads follow the valleys, but innumerable footpaths lead in all directions through the magnificent woods. The Black Forest railway, opened in 1873, ascends the picturesque valleys of the Kinzig and Gutach by means of bridges, viaducts, and tunnels, often of the boldest construction.
To the south of the Ranhe Alb the plateau of Upper Swabia stretches to the Lake of Constance and eastwards across the Iller into Bavaria. Between the Alb and the Black Forest in the north-west are the fertile terraces of Lower Swabia, continued on the north-east by those of Franconia.
About 70 per cent. of Wiirtemberg belongs to the basin of the Rhine, and about 30 per cent. to that of the Danube. The principal river is the Neckar, which flows northward for 186 miles through the country to join the Rhine, and with its tributaries drains 57 per cent. of the kingdom.- On the west it receives the Enz, swelled by the Nagold, and on the east the Fils, Items, _purr, Kocher, and Jagst. The Danube flows from east to west across the south half of Wiirtemberg, a distance of 65 miles, a small section of which is in Hohenzollern. Just above Uhn it is joined by the Iller, which forms the boundary between Bavaria and Wiirtemberg for about 35 miles. The Tauber in the north-east joins the Main ; the Argen and Schussen in the south enter the Lake of Constance. The lakes of Wiirtemberg, with the exception of those in the Black Forest, all lie south of the Danube. The largest is the Federsee (640 acres) near Buchau. About one-fifth of the Lake of Constance is reckoned to belong to Wiirtemberg. Mineral springs are abundant ; the most famous spa is Wildbad, in the Black Forest.
The climate is temperate, - colder among the mountains in the south than in the north. The mean temperature varies at different points from 43° to 50° F. The abundant forests induce much rain, most of which falls in summer. The soil is on the whole fertile and well-cultivated ; and for many centuries agriculture was almost the only resource of the inhabitants. Middle and Lower Swabia are the most fertile districts. The removal of burdens and restrictions in 1848 and 1849, and intelligent state-aid, combined. with the formation of agricultural societies, have encouraged farming, but the practice of parcelling the land in minute patches among the members of the communities still retards progress. According to returns made in 1878, 45.2 per cent. of the land was under agriculture, 30.7 under forest, 19.4 in pasture, 1.2 in vineyards, and the remainder unproductive. Grain is produced in excess of the home demand.
The following table shows the average annual extent (in acres) of the chief crops in 1878-1880, and the value : - Pease, maize, rape, hemp, flax, hops, and chicory are also produced in considerable quantity ; tobacco is grown in the valley of the Neckar. Wiirtemberg is very rich in fruit trees of various kinds, and market-gardening flourishes near the larger towns and in the Remsthal. In 1880 there were 35,000 acres under vegetables. The cultivation of the vine is a highly important industry in the valleys of the Neckar and sonic of the other streams. In the period 1827-1882 the average annual area under vines was 63,327 acres, yielding 5,701,454 gallons of wine, worth £411,700. The best year was 1835, when 22,303,006 gallons were produced, the worst was 1854, with 1,696,376 gallons. Among the best Wiirtemberg wines are those known as Rothenberger, Tiirkheimer, Brodwasser, Kiisberger, Elpiuger, Sehalksteiner, berger, Markelsheimer, Verrenberger, and Lindelberger. About one-third of the entire country is under forest, the greater proportion of which consist of deciduous trees (oaks, beeches, &c.). Coniferous trees are most numerous in the Black Forest, in Upper Swabia, and in the circle of Jagst. Most of the forests belong to the state or to public companies, and are carefully and skilfully managed. Large tracts in the Black Forest are in the hands of the "Schiffergesellschaft," a very ancient guild of timber merchants.
In 1883 Wiirtemberg contained 96,885 horses, 904,139 cattle, 550,104 sheep, 292,206 swine, and 54,876 goats. The breeding of Salt and iron are the only minerals of industrial importance found in Wiirtemberg, and both are worked almost entirely by Government. There are five Government salt-works (the chief of which are Friedrichshall and Wilhelmsgliick), employing together 425 hands. In 1879-80 970,084 tons of salt were produced, two-thirds by mining. The salt industry only began to be of importance at the beginning of the present century. The iron industry on the other hand is of great antiquity, though it is much hampered by the entire absence of coal mines in Wiirtemberg. The chief fuel used in smelting the iron is wood or charcoal. Iron is mined at NeuenbUrg, Freudenstetten, and, to a very limited extent, in the Black Forest. In 1877-80 15,546 tons of ore were raised by 110 miners, yielding about 33 per cent. of raw metal. Cement, gypsum, grindstones, millstones, building-stones, &c., are also found. The annual value of the minerals of all kinds raised in Wiirtemberg has been roughly estimated at about £350,000.
Until the close of the Napoleonic wars, Wiirtemberg was almost exclusively an agricultural and bucolic country ; but since that period it has turned its attention to trade and manufactures, and perhaps now stands second only to Saxony among the German states in commercial and industrial activity. The want of coal is naturally a serious drawback, but it is to a certain extent compensated by the abundant water-powe•. The textile industry is carried on in most of its branches. Wool, from both domestic and foreign sources, is woven at Esslingen, Giippingen, and other towns in Lower Swabia ; cotton is manufactured in Goppingen and Esslingen, and linen in Upper Swabia. Lace-making also flourishes in the last-named district, as a rural house-industry. The silk industry of Wiirtemberg, which employs about 1100 hands, though not very extensive in itself, is the most important silk industry in Germany. Ravensburg claims to have possessed the earliest paper-mill in Germany ; paper-making is still important in that town and at Ileidenheim, Heilbronn, Gi.ippingen, and other places in Lower Swabia. Government owns six iron foundries and puddling works, the most important of which is at Wasseralfingen, where over 1000 hands are employed. The locomotive engines of Esslingen enjoy a wide reputation ; and agricultural and other machinery, boilers, and tools of various kinds are also manufactured and exported by various towns. The organs of Ludwigsbu•g are well known ; bell-founding is carried on at Stuttgart, Reutlingen, and Cannstatt; beetroot sugar and beer are considerable items in the list of annual produce ; - wine has been already mentioned. The manufacture of chemicals at Stuttgart, Heilbronn, &c., is important.
Trade has prospered since WUrtemberg joined the North German Customs Union in 1834. The leading trading towns are Heilbronn, Stuttgart, Ulm, and Friedrichshafen. Cattle, horses, sheep, agricultural produce, timber, salt, and various manufactured goods are the chief exports ; coal, hops, steel goods of various kinds, eggs, and poultry are among the chief imports. The book-trade of Stuttgart is very extensive ; that town has been called the Leipsic of southern Germany.
In 1887 991 miles of railway were open for traffic in Wiirtemberg. With the insignificant exception of two private lines, together no more than 31 miles long, all the railways arc in the hands of the state. The Neckar, the Schussen, and the Lake of Constance are all navigable for boats ; the Danube begins to be navigable at Ulm. The roads of Wiirtemberg are fairly good ; the oldest are Roman. Wiirtemberg, like Bavaria, retained the control of its own postal and telegraph system on the foundation of the new German empire. In 1885 there were 1750 miles of telegraph wires in the kingdom.
In 1885 the population of Wiirtemberg was 1,995,168, or one twenty-third of the total population of Germany on one twenty-eighth of its area. The average per square mile is 264.9. The following table shows the distribution of the population among the administrative districts, and their religion. The Neckar division contains most large towns.
The people of the north-west belong to the Alemannic stock, those of the north-east to the Franconian, and those of the centre and south to the Swabian. According to the occupation census of 1882, the following were the numbers of those (including their families and dependants) engaged in the various departments of work : - in agriculture, forestry, &c., 942,924 ; in mining and industrial pursuits, 674,081 ; in trade and commerce, 143,258 ; domestic and other service, 11,254 ; in professions, 95,712 ; " no returns," 90,240. In 1886 there were 3717 emigrants; in 1881 there were 11,470.
In 1885 there were 15 towns with more than 10,000 inhabitants, viz., Stuttgart (125,906), Ulm (33,610), Heilbronn (27,758), Esslingen (20,864), Cannstatt or Canstatt (18,031), Reutlingen (17,319), Lndwigsburg (16,201), Gmiind (15,.321), Tiibingen (12,551), Goppingen (12,102), and Ravensburg (11,482).
About two-thirds of the population are Protestant. In 1880, when the total population was 1,971,118, there were 1,364,580 Protestants, 590,290 Roman Catholics, 13,331 Jews, 2817 of other Christian sects, and 98 "others." The Protestant church is controlled (under the minister of religion and education) by a consistory and a synod, - the latter being made up of the consistory and six general superintendents or " prelates" from six principal towns. But no laws are made or altered without the consent of a representative council, including both lay and clerical members. The Roman Catholic church is subject to the bishop of Rottenburg, in the archdiocese of Freiburg. Politically it is under a Roman Catholic council, appointed by Government. The Jews also since 1828 have been subject to a state-appointed council.
Wiirtemberg is one of the best educated countries of Europe. 1 School attendance is compulsory on children from seven to fourteen t years of age, and young people from fourteen to eighteen must either attend the schools on Sunday or souse other educational establishment. Every community of at least 30 families must have a school. The different churches attend to the schools of their own confession. There is a university at Tubingen, and a polytechnic school at Stuttgart. Technical schools of various kinds are established in many of the towns, in addition to a thorough equipment of gymnasia, commercial schools, seminaries, &c. The conservatory of music at Stuttgart enjoys a high reputation.
Wiirtemberg is a constitutional monarchy and a member of the German empire, with 4 votes in the federal council and 17 in the t imperial diet. The constitution rests on a law of 1819, amended in 1868 and 1874. The crown is hereditary, and conveys the simple title of king of Wiirtemberg. The king receives a civil list of £90,670, and the "apanages" of the crown amount to £14,900 snore. The legislature is bicameral. The upper chamber (Standesherren) is composed of adult princes of the blood, heads of noble families from the rank of count (Graf) upwards, representatives of territories (Standesherrschaften) which possessed votes in the old German diet, and of life members nominated by the king. The number of this last class must not exceed one-third of the house. The lower house (Abgeordneten-Haus) has 93 members, viz., 13 noble landowners, elected by their peers (Ritterschaft), the 6 Protestant " prelates," the Roman Catholic bishop, and 2 other official Roman Catholic members, the chancellor of the university of Tubingen, 7 representatives from the chief towns, and 63 representatives from country districts. The king appoints the president of the upper chamber ; since 1874 the lower chamber has elected its own chairman. Members are elected for six years by ballot ; the suffrage is enjoyed by all male citizens. With the exception of the royal princes and the life-members of the upper house that reside in Stuttgart, the members of both houses receive a daily payment of 91n. 41pf. (9s. 5d.) each.
The highest executive is in the hands of a ministry of state (Staatsministerium), consisting of six ministers and the privy council, the members of which are nominated by the king. There are ministers of justice, war, finance, home affairs, religion and education, and foreign affairs, railways, and the royal household. The legal system is framed in imitation of that of the German empire. The judges of the supreme court for impeachments of ministers, Sze., named the Staatsgerichtshof, are partly elected by the chambers and partly appointed by the king. The country is divided into four administrative "circles," subdivided into 64 " Oberiimter," each of which is under an " Oberamtmann," assisted by an " Amtsversammlung " or local council. At the head of each of the four large divisions is a " Regierung."
The official finance period of Wiirtemberg embraces two years. For 1885-87 the budget showed an annual income of £2,811,921, balanced by the expenditure, which included a payment of £2500 to a reserve fund. The chief sources of income were taxes (X1,392,893, including £691,773 of direct taxes), and public domains and monopolies (.C1,095,336, including £662,385 from railways and £72,741 from post and telegraphs). The chief expenditure was on the interest (X875,525) and sinking fund (£122,873) of the public debt. This debt amounted in 1887 to £21,202,570, of which by far the greater proportion (X18,966,700) was incurred for constructing and buying railways. Sleet of it bears interest at 4 per cent.
In terms of the convention of 1870 the troops of Wiirtemberg form the 13th army corps in the imperial German army. They include 8 regiments of infantry, 4 of cavalry, and 2 of field artillery, he. By the army law of Starch 11, 1887, the peace strength of the army was fixed at 773 officers, 18,815 men, and 64 cannon. The town of Uhn is one of the strongest fortresses in Germany.
The earliest known inhabitants of the country now called Wfirtemberg seem to have been Suevi. The Romans, who appeared first about 15 B.C., added the south part of the land to the province of Gaul in 84 A.D., and defended their positions there by a wall or. rampart. About the beginning of the 3d century the Alemanin drove the Romans beyond the Rhine and the Danube ; but they in their turn were conquered by the Franks under Clovis (496), and the land was divided between Rhenish Franconia and the duchy of i Alemannia. The latter, however, disappears about 760, and its territories were administered for the Frankish monarchs by "grafs " or counts, until they were finally absorbed in the duchy of Swabia. Tho last duke of Swabia died in 1268, and a large share of his power and possessions fell into the hands of the "grafs " of .Wiir- temberg, whose ancestral castle crowned a hill between Esslingen and Calastatt. Tradition mentions a Conradus de Wirtemberc iu 1090, but the earliest authentic count seems to have been Ulrich (1241-1265), who had large possessions in the valleys of the Neckar and the Hems. The power of this family grew steadily under suci iWiirtemberg from the wasting effects of those family feuds and jealousies which interfered so seriously with the development of some of the other German states. Eberhard V., surnamed "im Bart" (1482-1496), was one of the most energetic and illustrious rulers that Wiirtemberg ever had, and in 1495 his possessions were raised by the emperor to the dignity of an immediate imperial duchy. The reign of Ulrich I. (1498-1550), who succeeded to the duchy while still a child, was a most eventful period for the country, and many stories and traditions cluster round. the name of this gifted and vigorous but unscrupulous and ambitious man. The extortions by which he sought to raise money for his extravagant pleasures excited a rising known as the " arrne Konrad" (poor Conrad) - not unlike tithe rising of Wat Tyler in England ; and by the treaty of Tubingen in 1514 his people undertook to pay Ins debts in exchange for various political privileges, which in effect laid the foundation of the constitutional liberties of the country. A few years later, however, Ulrich quarrelled with the Swabian league of imperial towns, and their army headed by the duke of Bavaria, who was incensed by Ulrich's ill-treatment of his wife, a Bavarian princess, invaded Wiirtemberg, expelled the duke, and in 1520 sold the duchy to Austria for 220,000 florins. Ulrich, however, found his opportunity in the discontent caused in Wiirtemberg by the military and religious oppression of Austria, and in the disturbed state of the empire during the Peasants' War, and the commotions excited by the Reformation. Aided by Philip of Hesse and other Protestant princes, he fought a victorious battle at Lauffen in 1534 ; and by the treaty of Kadan he was recognized once more as duke, though forced to acknowledge his duchy a fief of Austria. One of his first acts was to introduce the Reformation, and to endow Protestant churches and schools throughout his land. His connexion with the Schmalkaldian League once more cost him a temporary expulsion from his throne, but Charles V. reinstated him in 1547, though under severe conditions. Ulrich's son Christopher (1550-1568) introduced systems of law and church government (Grosse Kirchenordnung) which have endured in part to the present (lay. The establishment in this reign of a kind of standing committee to superintend the finances was the beginning of popular representation in the government, though its members belonged exclusively, of course, to the higher ranks. Frederick I. (1593-1608), an energetic and ambitious prince, induced the emperor Rudolph II. in 1599 to raise the duchy once more to the dignity of an immediate fief of the empire. In the reign of his successor, John Frederick (1608-1628), Wiirtemberg suffered severely from the Thirty Years' War, though the duke took no active share in that struggle. His son and successor, however, Eberhard III. (1628-1674), eagerly joined in it, but with disastrous effects. Wiirtemberg was occupied by imperial troops, the duke was driven into exile, and when the peace of Westphalia once more reinstated him he found but 50,000 subjects where he had left 400,000. In the reign of Eberhard IV. (1677-1733), who was but one year old when his father William died, Wiirtemberg made acquaintance with another destructive enemy. In 1688, 1692, 1703, and 1707 the French entered the country with fire and sword, annihilating whole villages in their ruthless brutality, and leaving deserts in their track. The depopulated country eagerly afforded a welcome and a home to the Waldensians, who had been driven from their valleys by the duke of Savoy in 1699. Charles Alexander, who became duke in 1733, had embraced the Roman Catholic faith when an officer in the Austrian service, while his favourite minister was the unscrupulous Jew Stiss Oppenheimer. The duke, instigated by Ids minister, was believed to aim at the suppression of the diet, and at the introduction of the Romish faith, but Charles's sudden death in 1737 put an .abrupt end to these plans. Siiss Oppenheimer was hanged. by the regent, before the next duke, Charles Eugene (1737-1793) came of age in 1744. The prince was gifted but vicious, and Ire soon fell into the hands of unworthy favourites. His whole reign was disturbed by dis sensions betwixt the ruler and the ruled, in which the intervention of foreign powers (Prussia and England) was invoked, though in vain, by the unhappy, people. Alarmed by the gathering discontent, Charles made a few concessions in his old age. Frederick Eugene (1795-1797), a brother of Charles Eugene, had been brought up at the court of Frederick the Great, whose niece he married. His children were, through this influence, educated as Protestants, and the royal fancily of Wiirtemberg have been Protestants since his death.
Frederick II. (1797-1816) resembled the first of his name in becoming embroiled with the diet. He declared war against France in defiance of the wishes of his people, and when the French invaded the country he retired to Erlangen, till after the peace of Luueville (1801). By a private treaty at the same elate, he exchanged Montbeliard (which had belonged. to Wiirteniberg since 1418) and Ids Alsatian possessions for nine imperial towns and other territories, amounting in all to 850 square miles, with 124,000 inhabitants. He accepted also the title of elector from Napoleon. The newly acquired districts were not incorporated with his former possessions, but remained separate under the name "New Wiirtemberg." The new district had no diet. This was the first of a series of transactions with the national enemy, which swelled Frederick's territory, though they added but little to his credit. In 1805 Wiirtemberg took up arms on the side of France, and the elector was rewarded at the peace of Pressburg by various Austrian possessions in Swabia, and the title of king. On January 1, 1806, Frederick assumed the royal style, abrogated the constitution, and united. old and new Wiirtembcrg. He subsequently united church and state, and proclaimed religious equality. In 1806 King Frederick 1. joined the Confederation of the Rhine, and received fresh territories, with 160,000 inhabitants ; and the peace of Vienna brought 110,000 new subjects under his sceptre. But he had to perform his part of the bargain by joining Napoleon in his campaigns against Prussia, Austria, and Russia. Of 16,000 Wiirtene• bergers who marched to Moscow, only a few hundred returned. When fortune turned, Frederick with ready adroitness changed sides, and managed to preserve his royal title and most of his new-won lands by joining the allies immediately after the battle of Leipsic.
Wiirtemberg had been promised a constitution by Frederick before he died in 1816, but a good. deal of discussion took place before it was granted in 1819 by William I. (1816-1864). A period of quiet now set in, and the educational condition of the kingdom, its agriculture, and its trade and manufactures began to receive earnest attention. The desire for political freedom had by no means been satisfied by the constitution of 1S19, and a "liberal opposition " began to make itself felt about 1830. The agitation of 1848 did not leave IrViirtemberg undisturbed, though DO scenes of actual violence took place in the kingdom. The conservative ministry granted freedom of the press and other privileges, too late, however, to avert their fall, Tire king was compelled to call the liberals to power in March 1848, and a new liberal constitution was granted. But as soon as the stress was over the "March ministry" was dismissed, and the reactionary party were again in the ascendant. By a high-handed interference with recently granted popular rights on the part of the king and his ministers a servile diet was assembled in 1851, which yielded up without hesitation all that had been gained since 1848. The constitution of 1819 was reinstituted, and it has remained, with only a few modifications, ever since. In 1864 Charles ascended the throne. In the duel between Prussia and Austria for supremacy in Germany, the sympathies of the rulers of Wtirtemberg were always on the side of the latter, although the country entered the Customs Union under Prussia's protection in 1864. In 1866 Wiirtemberg took up arms on behalf of Austria ; but the Wiirtemberg troops were defeated at Tauberbischofsheim, three weeks after Sadowa, and its ministers sued for peace. Prussia exacted an indemnity of 8 million florins, and Wiirtemberg struck a secret offensive and defensive treaty with its conqueror. In 1870 this kingdom shared in the national enthusiasm which swept over Germany when France declared war ; and its troops had a creditable share ire the memorable campaign of 1870-71. Since the foundation of the present German empire, the separate history of Wiirtemberg has tweit of almost exclusively local interest. The tendency of legislation has been, on the whole, liberal.
A very full and minute description of Wiirtemberg, together with copious lists of authorities on all subjects connected with it, will be found in Da., lantigreich Wiiritemberg, Stuttgart, 1882 sq , officially published by the Iiiinigliches Statistisch-Topogiaphisehes Bureau. (F. mu.)