Diseases Of Domestic Animals
horse water little body linseed food animal fever mouth symptoms
DISEASES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. Considerations of space forbid a complete or detailed description of all the diseases, medical and surgical, to which the domesticated animals are liable. This is to be found in the current veterinary text-books. Reference will be made here only to the more important disorders of animals which are of a communicable nature, and which were not included in the article MultRAIN Diseases of the Horse.
Every horseman should know something of the injuries, lame-/losses, and diseases to which the horse is liable. Unfortunately not very- much can be done in this direction by book instruction ; indeed, there is generally too much doctoring and too little nursing of sick animals. Even in slight and favourable cases of illness recovery is often retarded by too zealous and injudicious medication ; the object to be always kept in view in the treatment of animal patients is to place them in those conditions which allow nature to operate most freely in restoring health. This can best be rendered in the form of nursing, which sick animals greatly appreciate. However indifferent a horse may be to caressing or kind attention (luring health, when ill he certainly appreciates both, and when in pain will often apparently endeavour to attract notice and seek relief from those with whom he is familiar. Fresh air and cleanliness, quiet and comfort, should always be secured, if possible. The stable or loose box should be warm, without being close, and free from draughts. If the weather is cold, and especially if the horse is suffering from inflammation of the air-passages, it may be necessary to keep up the temperature by artificial means ; but great care should be taken that this does not render the air too dry to breathe. The surface of the body can be kept warm by rugs, and the legs by woollen bandages. Vet a sick horse is easily fatigued and annoyed by too much clothing, and therefore it is better to resort to artificial heating of the stable than to overload the body or impede movement by heavy wrappings. If blankets are used, it is well to place a cotton or linen sheet rimier them, should the horse have an irritable skin. For bedding, long straw should be employed as little as possible, since it hampers movement. Clean old litter, sawdust, or peat-moss litter is the best. If the hoofs are strong, and the horse likely to be confined for some weeks, it affords relief to take off the shoes. Tying up should be avoided, if possible, unless it is urgently required, the horse being allowed to move about or lie down as he may prefer.
When a sick horse has lost his appetite, he should be tempted to eat by offering him such food as will be enticing to him. It should be given frequently and in small quantities, but should not be forced on him ; food will often be taken if offered from the hand, when it will not lie eaten out of the manger. Whether the animal be fed from a bucket or from a manger, any food that is left should be thrown away, and the receptacle well cleaned out after each meal. As a rule, during sickness a horse requires laxative food, in order to allay fever or inflammatory symptoms, while supporting the strength. The following list comprises the usual laxative food employed : - green grass, green wheat, oats, and barley, lucerne, carrots, parsnips, gruel, bran mash, linseed and bran mash, boiled barley, linseed tea, hay tea, and linseed oil. Green grass, lucerne, and similar articles of food, if cut when in a wet state, should be dried before being given. Boilc 1 grain should be cooked with very little water, so that it may lie floury and comparatively dry when ready ; a little salt should be mix, with it. One gallon of good gruel may be made with a pound of meal and cold water, which should be stirred till it boils, and afterwards permitted to simmer over a gentle fire till the llnid is quite thick. To make a bran mash, scald a stable bucket, throw out the water, put in three pounds of loan and one ounce of salt, add two and a half pints of boiling water, stir up well, cover over, and allow the mash to stand Mr fifteen or twenty minutes until it is well cooked. For a bran and linseed mash, boil slowly for two or three hours one pound of linseed, so as to have about a couple of quarts of thick fluid, to which two pounds of bran and one ounce of salt may be added. The whole should be stirred up, covered over, and allowed to steam as before described. The thicker the mash the more readily will the horse eat it Linseed tea is made by boiling one pound of linseed in a couple of gallons of water until the grains are quite soft. It may lie economically made by using less water to cook the linseed, and afterwards making up the quantity of water to about a gallon and a half. Ilay tea may be prepared by filling a bucket, after scalding it, with good sweet hay, pouring in as much boiling water as the bucket will hold, covering it over, and allowing it to stand until cold, when the Iluid may lie strained off and given to the horse. This forms a refreshing drink. Linseed oil, in quantities of from one quarter to half a pint daily, may lie mixed with the food ; it keeps the bowels in a lax condition, has a good effect on the skin and air-passages, and is useful as an article of dist. When debility has to be combated, as in low fever or other weakening diseases, strengthening and other easily digested food must be administered, though some of the foods already mentioned, such as boiled grain, answer this purpose to a certain extent. Milk, eggs, bread and biscuits, malt liquor, corn, &c., are often prescribed with this object. Milk may be given skimmed or unskimmed ; a little sugar may be mixed with it ; and one or two gallons may he given daily, according to circumstances. One or two eggs may be given beaten up with a little sugar and mixed with milk, three or four times a day, or more frequently ; or they may be boiled hard and powdered, and mixed in the milk, A quart of stout, ale, or porter may be given two or three times a day, or a half to one bottle of port wine daily. Scalded oats, with a little salt added, are very useful when convalescence is nearly completed. As a rule, a sick horse should have as much water as lie likes to drink, though it may be necessary in certain cases to restrict the quantity, and to have the chill taken ote; but it should never be warmer than 75° to 80'.
As little grooming as possible should be allowed when a horse is very weak ; it should be limited to sponging about the mouth, nostrils, eyes, and forehead with clean water, to which a little vinegar may be added. Rub the legs and ears with the hand, take off the clothing, and shake or change it once a day, and if agreeable rub over the body with a soft cloth. Exercise is of course not required during sickness or injury, and the period at which it is allowed will depend upon circumstances. Care must be taken that it is not ordered too early, or carried too far at first.
Administration, of Medicine.-11inch care is required in administering medicines in the form of ball or bolus ; and practice, as ; well as courage and tact, is needed in order to give it without danger to the administrator or the animal. The ball should be held between the fingers of the right hand, the tips of the first and fourth being brought together below the second and third, which are placed on the upper side of the ball ; the right hand is thus made as small as possible, so as to admit of ready insertion into the mouth. The left hand grasps the horse's tongue, gently pulls it out, and places it on that part of the right side of the lower jaw which is bare of teeth. With the right band the ball is placed at the root of the tongue. The moment the right hand is withdrawn, the tongue should be released. This causes the ball to be carried still farther back. The operator then closes the mouth and watches the left side of the neck, to note the passage of the ball down the gullet. Many horses keep a ball in the mouth a considerable time before they will allow it to go down. A-mouthful of water or a handful of food will generally make them swallow it readily. If this does not succeed, the nostrils should be grasped by the hand and held a few moments. A running halter should be used, so that the mouth may be quickly and securely closed. If the operator has not had much experience in giving balls, lie should station an assistant on the near side, to aid in opening and steadying the mouth, by placing the fingers of his left hand on the lower jaw and the thumb of the right on the upper jaw. Bolding the month in this manner facilitates the giving of the ball, and saves the operator's right hand, to a great extent, from being scratched by the horse's back teeth. It is most essential to have the ball moderately soft ; nothing can be more dangerous than a hard one.
To administer a drink or drench requires as much care as giving a ball, in order to avoid choking the horse, though it is unattended I with risk to the administrator. An ordinary glass or stone bottle may be used, provided there are no sharp points around the mouth ;1 but either the usual drenching horn or a tin vessel with a narrow-mouth or spout is safer. It is necessary to raise the horse's head, so that the nose may be a little higher than the horizontal If the horse is restless, his head must be elevated by a loop of cord inserted into the mouth over the upper jaw, the prong of a stable fork being passed through it, and the handle held steady by an assistant. The drink must be given by a person standing on the right side (the assistant being in front or on the left side of the horse), the side of the mouth being pulled out a little, to form a sack or funnel, into which the medicine is poured, a little at a time, allowing au interval now and again for the horse to swallow. If any of the fluid gets into the windpipe (which it is liable to do if the head is held too high), it will cause coughing, whereupon the head should fie instantly lowered. Neither the tongue nor the nostrils should he interlined with. Powders may be given in a little Illash or gruel, well stirred up.
If a wide surface is to be fomented (as the chest, abdomen, or I loins), a blanket or other huge woollen cloth should be dipped in t water as hot as the hand can comfortably bear it, moderately wrung out, and applied to the part, the heat and moisture being retained by covering it with a waterproof sheet or dry rug.. When it has lost some of its heat, it should he removed, dipped ill vCaro water, and again applied. In cases of acute inflammation, it may lie necessary to have the water a little hotter ; and, to avoid the inconvenience of removing the blanket, or the danger of chill when it is removed, it may- be secured round the body by skewers or twine, the hot water being poured on the outside of the top part of the blanket by any convenient vessel. To foment the feet, they should be placed in a bucket or tub (the latter with the bottom resting wholly on the ground) containing warm water ; a quantity of moss litter put in the tub or bucket prevents splashing and retains the heat longer.
Poultices are used for allaying pain, promoting suppuration, softening horn or other tissues, and bringing on a healthy action in wounds. To be beneficial, they should be large and always kept moist. For applying poultices to the feet, a poultice-shoe, constructed as follows, may be used with advantage. Take a circular piece of hard wood, a little longer and broader than a horseshoe, and about one and a half inches thick. Get one surface of it rounded in a lathe, so that there may be a rise of about three-quarters of an inch in the centre, while the other surface remains flat. Round the circumference of the board nail leather, so as to form a convenient boot for retaining the poultice, similar to the one in ordinary use, except that the part which comes on the ground is rounded. The fact of its being round will enable the horse to whose foot it is applied to ease the affected spot by throwing his weight on the toe, the heel, or on either quarter, as he chooses. Poultices are usually made with bran, though this has the disadvantage of drying very quickly, to remedy which it may be mixed with linseed meal or a little linseed oil. Boiled carrots or turnips mashed make a good poultice, as does linseed meal, when mixed with boiling water (with a little olive oil added) by stirring. A charcoal poultice is sometimes used when there is a bad smell to be got rid of. It is made by mixing linseed meal with boiling water and stirring until a soft mass is produced ; with this some wood charcoal in powder is mixed, and when ready to be applied some more powder is sprinkled on the surface. It may be noted that, in lieu of these materials for poultices, what is known as spongiopiline can be usefully employed. A piece of sufficient size is steeped in hot water, applied to the part, covered with a large piece of oiled silk or waterproof stuff, and secured there. Even an ordinary sponge, steeped in hot water and covered with any waterproof material, makes a good poulticing medium ; it is well adapted for the throat, near the head, as well as for the space between the branches of the lower jaw.
Enemata or clysters are given in fevers, inflammation, constipa- tion, &c., to empty the posterior part of the bowels. They are administered by a large syringe capable of containing a quart or more of water, with a nozzle about twelve inches in length, with an ox's bladder tied to a pipe, or a large funnel with a long nozzle at a right angle ; but the syringe is best. Water alone is usually applied for enemata ; it should be about the temperature of the body, not less, but perhaps a degree or two more. To administer an enema, one of the horse's fore-feet should be held up, while the operator pushes the end of the nozzle, smeared with a little lard or oil, very gently and steadily for a few inches into the intestine, and then presses out the water. The amount injected will depend upon the size of the animal ; two or three quarts would suffice for an ordinary-sized horse.
Epizootic and Contagious Diseases. - The epizootic diseases affecting the horse are not numerous, and may generally be considered as specific, or infectious and contagious, in their nature, circumstances of a favourable kind leading to their extension by propagation of the agent upon which their existence depends. This agent, iu some of the maladies, has been proved to be a micro-organism, and there can be little doubt that it is so for all of them.
Glanders is one of the most serious diseases affecting horses, not only because it is incurable, but because it is very contagious. It is known in nearly every part of the world, except in Australasia. The virulent principle of glanders establishes itself most easily among horses kept in foul, badly-ventilated stables, or among such as are overworked, badly fed, or debilitated in any way. Glanders, however, has this in common with other contagious diseases, that it is never spontaneously developed, in the absence of the virulent agent. Carnivorous animals - as lions, tigers, dogs, and cats - have become infected through eating the flesh of glandered horses ; and goats, sheep, swine, and rabbits have been successfully inoculated with the virus. Men who attend on diseased horses are liable to be infected, especially if they have any sores on the exposed parts of their bodies (see GLANDERS). Though infection through wounds is the readiest way of receiving the disease, the germ or bacillus may also obtain access through the lungs, stomach, and thin mucous membranes, such as that of the eyes, nose, and lips. Wanders is presented in two forms, - one affecting the mucous membranes of the body, more particularly those of the air-passages (glanders proper), and the other attacking the skin and the superficial lymphatic vessels (farey). Both forms are due to the same virus, and both may be acute or chronic. The acute form is the more contagious and virulent, and either destroys life quickly or becomes chronic.
The symptoms of acute glanders are marked by fever and its accompaniments - loss of appetite, hurried pulse and respiration, languor, and disinclination to move. Sometimes the legs or joints are swollen ; but the characteristic symptoms, the classical signs, are a yellow adhesive discharge from one or both nostrils ; there is also a peculiar enlarged modulated condition of one orhoth lymphatic glands between the branches of the lower jaw, which, though they may be painful, very rarely suppurate ; and on the mucous membrane covering the septum of the nose are little yellow pimples or pustules, running into deep ragged-edged ulcers. The discharge from the nostril adheres to its margin, because of its glutinous nature, and straw and other matters also stick to it, while the obstruction to the respiration causes the animal to snort frequently - a cause of danger to men and animals, as this nasal discharge is virulent. In addition, the lymphatic vessels of the face are often involved and appear as corded lines passing imp the cheeks ; they are painful on pressure. In some eases there is a cough. As the disease progresses, the ulcers in the nostrils extend in size and depth and increase in number, often completely perforating the septum, and being sometimes covered with black crusts ; the nasal discharge becomes more abundant and tenacious, streaked with blood, and foul smelling, and causes the animal the greatest difficulty in breathing, so that it appears to be on the point of suffocation. Death is due either to this cause or to exhaustion, Chronic glanders generally presents the same symptoms ; but the animal is not so seriously ill, and may indeed appear to be in good health and be able to perform a certain amount of work. In some cases the ulceration may not be perceptible, and only the peculiar knotty enlarged gland and slight discharge from one nostril be evident. There may be uncertainty- in such cases as to whether the disease is glanders, owing to the absence of ulceration ; and, to prove whether it is that disease, recourse has to be had to inoculation of another animal, generally a worthless horse or ass, the latter being the best, as it develops the characteristic symptoms more rapidly and certainly.
In farcy, instead of the symptoms being manifested in the interior of the body or head, they show themselves on the skin, where the lymphatic vessels become inflamed and ulcerate. These vessels appear as prominent lines or " cords," hard and painful on manipulation, and along their course arise little tumours (the so-called " farcy buds "). These tumours ulcerate, forming sores, from which is discharged a thin glutinous pus. When the skin of the limbs is affected, these are much swollen and the animal moves with pain and difficulty. Rarely large abscesses containing thin pus form on the body. Fare), may appear during glanders or precede it, but it generally terminates in it, though the limbs and body may be covered with ulcers before this occurs.
Medical treatment of glanders, chronic and acute, and of acute farcy should not be attempted, as the malady is incurable, while the danger of infection being transmitted to other animals or men is always real and imminent. Horses which present suspicious symptoms, or those which have been in contact or have stood in the same stable with diseased horses, should be kept apart from others, and their harness, clothing, &c., left with them. Animals which are found to be affected should be immediately destroyed and buried with proper precautions, their harness, clothing, and the utensils employed with them being either destroyed also or thoroughly cleansed, while stables and places which they have frequented should be completely disinfected. Forage and litter used by glandered horses ought to be burned or buried.
The venereal or coitus disease is a malady which occurs in Arabia and continental Europe, and has recently been carried from France to the United States of America (Montana and Illinois). In some of its features it resembles human syphilis, and it is propagated in the same manner. From one to ten days after coitus, or in the stallion not unfrequently after some weeks, there is irritation, swelling, and a livid redness of the external organs of generation (in stallions the penis may shrink), followed by unhealthy ulcers, which appear in successive crops, often at considerable intervals. In mares these are near the clitoris, which is frequently erected, and the animals rub and switch the tail about, betraying uneasiness. In horses the eruption is on the penis and sheath. In the milder forms there is little constitutional disturbance, and the patients may recover in a period varying from two weeks to two months. In the severe forms the local swelling increases by intermittent steps. In the mare the vulva is the seat of a deep violet congestion and extensive ulceratton ; pustules appear on the perimeurn, tail, and between the thighs ; the lips of the vulva are parted, exposing the irregular, nodular, puckered, ulcerated, and lardaceous -looking mucous membrane. If the mare happens to be pregnant, abortion occurs. In all eases emaciation sets in ; lameness of one or more limbs occurs ; great debility is manifested, and this runs on to paralysis, when death ensues after a miserable existence of from four or five months to two years. In horses swelling of the sheath may be the only symptom for a long time, even for a year. Then there may follow dark patches of extravasated blood on or swellings of the penis ; the testicles may become tumefied ; a dropsical engorgement extends forward beneath the abdomen and chest ; the lymphatic glands in different parts of the body may be enlarged ; pustules and ulcers appear on the skin ; there is a discharge from the eyes and nose ; emaciation becomes extreme; a weak and vacillating movement of the posterior limbs gradually increases, as in the mare, to paralysis ; and after from three months to three years death puts an end to loathsomeness and great suffering. This malady appears to be spread only by the act of coition. It is a purely contagious disorder, and cannot be generated by any known agency or cause. The indications for its suppression and extinction are therefore obvious. They are (1) to prevent diseased animals coining into actual contact, especially per coitum, with healthy ones, (2) to destroy the infected, and (3), as an additional precautionary measure, to thoroughly cleanse and disinfect the stables, clothing, utensils, and implements used for the sick horse.
Under influenza several diseases are sometimes included, and in different invasions it may (and doubtless does) assume varying forms. It may be said to be a specific fever of a low or asthenic type., associated with inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the air-passages, and also sometimes with that of other organs. At various times it has prevailed extensively over different parts of the world, more especially during the 18th and 19th centuries. Perhaps one of the most wide-spread outbreaks recorded was that of 1872, on the American continent. It usually radiates from the district in which it first appears. The symptoms have been enumerated as follows : - sudden attack, marked by extreme debility and stupor, with increased body-temperatnre, quick weak pulse, rigors, and cold extremities. The head is pendent, the eyelids swollen and half closed, eyes lustreless, and tears often flowing down the face. There is great disinclination to move ; the body sways oil the animal attempting to walk ; and the limb-joints crack. The appetite is lost and the mouth is hot and dry ; the bowels are constipated and the urine scanty and high-coloured; there is nearly always a deep, painful, and harassing cough ; on auscultation of the chest erepitation or harsh blowing sounds are audible ; and the membrane lining the eyelids and nose assumes either a bright pink colour or a dull leaden hue. A white, yellowish, or greenish-coloured discharge flows from the nostrils. In a few flays the fever and other symptoms subside, and convalescence rapidly sets in. In unfavourable eases the fever increases, as well as the prostration, the breathing becomes laboured, the cough more painful and deep, and auscultation and percussion indicate that the lungs are seriously involved, with perhaps the pleura or the heart. Clots sometimes form in the latter organ, and quickly bring about a fatal termination. When the lungs do not suffer, the bowels may, and with this complication there are, in addition to the stupor and torpor, tension and tenderness of the abdominal walls when pressed upon, manifestations of colic, great thirst, a coated tongue, yellowness of the membranes of nose and eyes, high-coloured urine, constipation, and dry feces covered with mucus, Sometimes rheumatic swelling and tenderness take place in the muscles and joints of the limbs, which may persist for a long time, often shifting from leg to leg, and involving the sheaths of tendons. At other times acute inflammation of the eyes supervenes, or even paralysis.
In this disease good nursing is the chief factor in the treatment. Comfortable, clean, and airy stables or loose-boxes should be provided, and the warmth of the body and limbs maintained. Cold and damp, foul air and uncleanliness, are as inimical to health and as antagonistic to recovery as in the case of mankind. In influenza it has been generally found that the less medicine the sick animal receives the more likely it is to recover. Nevertheless it may be necessary to adopt such medical measures as the following. For constipation administer enemata of warm water or give a dose of linseed oil or aloes. For fever give mild febrifuge diuretics (as liquor of acetate of ammonia or spirit of nitrous ether), and, if there is cough or nervous excitement, anodynes (such as extract of belladonna). When the fever subsides and the prostration is great, it may be necessary to give stimulants (carbonate of ammonia, nitrous ether, aromatic ammonia) and tonics, both vegetable (gentian, quassia, ealmnba) and mineral (iron, copper, arsenic). Sonic veterinary surgeons administer large and frequent doses of quinine from the onset of the disease, and, it is asserted, with excellent effect. If the abdominal organs are chiefly involved, demulcents may supplement the above (linseed boiled to a jelly, to which salt is added, is the most convenient and best), and drugs to allay pain (as opium and hydrocyanic acid). Olive oil is a safe laxative in such cases. When nervous symptoms are manifested, it may be necessary to apply wet cloths and vinegar to the head and neck ; even blisters to the neck have been recommended. Bromide of potassium has been beneficially employed. To combat inflammation of the throat, chest, or abdomen, counter-irritants may be resorted to, such as mustard, soap liniment, or the ordinary white liniment composed of equal parts of oil of turpentine, liquor ammonia:, and olive oil. The food should be soft mashes and gruel of oatmeal, with carrots and green food, and small and frequent quantities of scalded oats in addition when convalescence is established.
Typhoid, gastric, or bilious fever is often confounded with influenza, and sometimes occurs at the same time in a locality. It also appears independently in horses when shedding their coat in the autumn, ill those kept in a hot, close, and impure atmosphere, and in those fed insufficiently or on badly-preserved, musty, or otherwise improper food, or supplied with water containing an excess of decomposing organic matter. Overwork or hardship predisposes to an attack. This fever seems to become contagious under certain conditions, especially in badly-ventilated insalubrious stables. Wholesome and well-aired stables are not indeed always exempt ; but in them the disease is less serious and does not spread so rapidly. It is presumed that this fever is caused by some virulent principle. As "premonitory" indications of the malady, the horse appears dull and listless, and careless of food. Then signs of fever appear, in the form of staring coat, shivering, alternate heat and coldness of the surface, restlessness, a hot dry mouth, and elevation of the internal temperature of the body. The visible mucous membranes have a yellow tinge ; constipation is present, and with it indications of colicky pain ; the abdomen is distended, tense, and sensitive on pressure ; feces are passed in the shape of it few hard, dark-coloured pellets covered with nmeus ; the urine is scanty, red iu colour, and after standing a short dine deposits a heavy sediment. Sometimes there is sore throat, with increased respiration and a nasal discharge. In mild attacks convalescence may occur in from a week to ten days. In serious eases the pulse is small, feeble, and quick ; the mouth is very hot and dry, and exhibits yellow, brown, or greenish patches; the abdomen is more tender and the bowels very irritable, diarrhoea of a foetid character often ensuing,. Prostration to an extreme degree is a very marked feature in these cases. The head is maintained in a pendent position ; the eyes become sunken ; the expression is haggard and listless; while the stupor may be so advanced that pinching or pricking the skin will elicit no indication of sensibility. A fatal termination usually occurs in from tell to twenty days.
The diet must be carefully attended to, and should be soft and easily digested, such as mashes of bran, sliced carrots or turnips, boiled oats or barley, freshly eut grass, and oatmeal gruel. The stable should be kept clean and sweet, fresh air being an important factor in treatment ; the body of the patient must also be made comfortable by clothing. Quiet is necessary. Quinine has been found useful in large and repeated doses ; and calomel has been recommended. A daily dose of Glauber's salt may be given if there is constipation ; and, if this is obstinate, enemata of warm water should be administered in addition. A drachm each of chlorate or nitrate of potash and 'ululate of ammonia may be given three or four times daily with the water drunk ; or in cases of great prostration an ounce of oil of turpentine, sulphuric ether, sweet spirits of nitre, or carbonate of ammonia may be given as well. If there is much tenderness of the abdomen, hot fomentations continued for a long time, or mustard poultices, or the application of extract of mustard should be resorted to. When convalescence sets in, three or four ounces of tincture of gentian or cinchona may be given twice daily, with muriate of iron and stimulants.
Strangles is a specific contagious and infectious fever peculiar to ungulates, and is more especially incidental to young animals. It is particularly characterized by the formation of abscesses in the lymphatic glands, chiefly those between the branches of the lower jaw (submaxillary). Various causes are ascribed for its production, such as change of young horses from field to stable, from grass to dry feeding, from idleness to hard work, irritation of teething, and change of locality and climate. It is asserted that repeated attacks will occur in the same horse under the influence of the last-named cause. But the chief, if not the sole, cause is infection, - the malady, in some of its features, closely resembling the "mumps" of the human species. Languor and feverishness, diminution of appetite, cough, redness of the nasal membrane, with discharge from the eyes and nose, and thirst are among the earliest symptoms. Then there is difficulty in swallowing, coincident with the development of swelling between the branches of the lower jaw, which often causes the water in drinking to be returned through the nose and the masticated food to be dropped from the mouth. The swelling is hot and tender, diffused, and uniformly rounded and smooth ; at first it is hard, with soft, doughy margins ; but later it becomes soft in the centre, where an abscess is forming, and soon " points " and bursts, giving exit to a quantity of pus. Relief is now experienced by the animal ; the symptoms subside ; and recovery takes place. In some cases the swelling is so great or occurs so close to the larynx that the breathing is interfered With, and even rendered so difficult that suffocation is threatened. In other cases the disease assumes an irregular form, and the swelling, instead of softening in the centre, remains hard for an indefinite time, or it may subside and abscesses form in various parts of the body, sometimes in vital organs, as the brains, lungs, liver, kidneys, &c., or in the bronchial or mesenteric glands, where they generally produce serious consequences. Not 'infrequently a pustular eruption accompanies the other symptoms. The malady may terminate in ten days or be protracted for months, often terminating fatally, especially when the animal is not well nursed and is kept in an unhealthy stable.
Good nursing is the chief part of the treatment. The strength should be maintained by soft nutritious food, and the body kept warm and comfortable ; the stable or loose-box must have plenty of fresh air and be kept clean. The swelling may be fomented with warm water and peulticed. The poultice nay be a little bag containing bran and linseed meal mixed with hot water, and applied warm to the tumefaction, being retained there by a square piece of calico, with holes for the cars and eyes, tied down the middle of the face and behind the ears. If the breathing is disturbed and noisy, the animal may be made to inhale steam from hot water in a bucket or tram bran mash. If the breathing becomes very difficult, the windpipe must be opened and a tube inserted. Instead of the swelling being poulticed, a little blistering ointment is sometimes rubbed over it, which promotes suppuration. When the abscess points, it may be lanced, though it is generally better to allow it to open spontaneously.
It is very important to distinguish strangles from glanders ; the character of the nasal discharge, the absence of ulcers from the nostrils, and the diffused soft swelling between the branches of the lower jaw establish the distinction between them.
Dorsepox, which is somewhat rare, is almost, if not quite, identical with cowpox, being undistinguishable when inoculated on men and cattle. It most frequently attacks the limbs, though it may appear on the face and other parts of the body. There is usually slight fever ; then swelling, heat, and tenderness are manifest in the part which is to be the seat of eruption, usually the heels ; firm nodules form, increasing to one-third or one-half an inch in diameter ; the hair becomes erect ; and the skin, if light-coloured, changes to an intense red. On the ninth to the twelfth day a limpid fluid oozes from the surface and mats the hairs together in yellowish scabs ; when one of these is removed, there is seen a red, raw depression, whereon the scab was fixed. In three or four days the crusts fall off, and the sores heal spontaneously. No medical treatment is needed, cleanliness being requisite to prevent the pocks becoming sloughs. If the inflammation runs high, a weak solution of carbolic acid may be employed.
Bibliography. - Among the numerous modern popular works in English which treat of diseases of the horse, the following may be mentioned : - Robertson, Equine Medicine (London, 1883); Williams, Principles and Practice of Veterinary Medicine (2d ed., London, 1874-79), and Principles and Practice of Veterinary Surgery (ad ed., London, 1872-7e); Courtenay, Manual of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery (London, 1886); Fleming, Practical Horse-Keeper (London, 1886); Gresswell, Diseases and Disorders of the Horse (Leeds, 1886); Fitzwygram, Horses and Stables (London, 1869); and Law, The Farmer's Veterinary Adviser (London, 1879).