province lippe rhine north miles
WESTPHALIA (Germ. Westfalen), a province in the west of Prussia, is bounded on the N. by the province of Hanover, on the E. by the province of Hanover, the principalities of Lippe-Detmold and Schaumburg-Lippe, the duchy of Brunswick, the province of Hesse, and the principality of Waldeck, on the S.W. by Rhenish Prussia, and on the N.W. by Holland. Its greatest length from north to south is 110 miles, its greatest breadth is 124 miles, and its total area is 7800 square miles.
The Lippe, an affluent of the Rhine, flowing from east to west across the province, divides it into two parts, dissimilar in their character. The northern portion, a continuation of the plain of the Netherlands, is flat, with the exception of the east, which is occupied by the Weser Hills. South of the Lippe, on the other hand, the province is occupied by numerous small chains and groups of hills, enclosing many beautiful valleys. Between the parallel courses of the Lippe and Ruhr stretches the low chain of the Haar or Haarstrang (850-1050 feet), which is steep on its southern face, but slopes gradually down on the north to the valley of the Lippe, known as the Hellweg. The rugged mountain district south of the Ruhr is known as the Sauerland, and its eastern portion, the plateau of Winterberg, is the highest part of the province. The culminating point is the Astenberg (2760 feet). This plateau is connected with the Westerwald on the southwest border by the Rothhaar or Rothlagergebirge. Westphalia is divided between the basins of the Rhine, Ems, and Weser. The Rhine itself does not touch Westphalia, but its afiluents, the Lippe and Ruhr, are the leading streams in the province. The Ems, entering Westphalia from Lippe, flows north-west and enters Hanover. The Weser crosses the north-east of the province, piercing the Weser Hills by means of the narrow pass known as the Porta Westphalica or Westphalian Gate. All these streams are navigable for barges and small vessels. There are no lakes in the province. The climate is on the whole temperate, though sometimes the winters are severe among the mountains.
About 42 per cent. of the surface is given up to agriculture, 25 per cent to pastures and moors; 2S per cent. is under wood ; and the remainder is unproductive. The fertility of the soil varies ; it is most unfertile in the north and north-east. A great proportion of the land is in the hands of small farmers and peasant proprietors, who as a class are well-to-do, though their system of farming is in some respects antiquated. Grain of various kinds is grown, though not in sufficient quantity to meet the demands of the province ; potatoes, pease and beans, fruit, and tobacco are also produced ; but perhaps the most important crops are hemp and flax, which places Westphalia among the leading flax-producing districts of Germany. The forests are chiefly on the mountains of the Sauer-land, and in the south generally. Considerable numbers of cattle and pigs are reared, the latter yielding the well-known Westphalian hams ; goats are also numerous in sonic districts ; and Government pays some attention to the breeding of horses in this province. Sheep are comparatively few. (Compare the agricultural statistics tinder PitussiA.) In virtue of its abundant coal and iron Westphalia is one of the busiest industrial quarters of Germany. There are coal-fields in the north and in other districts, and the great coal-field of the Ruhr extends into the province. The district of Arnsberg, occupying the south of the province, is the centre of the mineral industry. Dortmund gives name to one of the five mining districts into which Prussia is officially divided. Westphalia, produces more iron ore than any other province in Prussia except the Rhine province and Silesia ; next to Silesia it Irroduces the most zinc, and next to Saxony the most copper ; and it yields more sulphur than any other province. Argentiferous lead, antimony, limestone, gypsum, marble, and slates are also worked. There are seven salt-works and numerous mineral springs.
The mineral wealth of the province encourages an extensive manufacturing industry, the leading branches of which are linen-weaving and iron-working. The linen industry is very ancient, and since the 14th century has flourished in this province between the Lippe and Weser. Its chief centre is now Bielefeld, which also manufactures jute. The cotton factories of Miinster are important. Woollens, stockings, and ribbons are also manufactured to some extent. The principal seats of the metallic industries are Iserlohn, Liidenscheid, Altena, Hagen, and the "Enneper Strasse," a valley 7 miles long and three quarters of a mile wide, lying along the Ennepe and containing as its chief towns Haspe (7318 Inhabitants) and Gevelsberg (7055). Cast and wrought iron, steel, rails, wire, blades and tools, machinery and small iron and steel goods, bronze, brass, and plated articles are among the leading products. Vitriol, glass, and paper are also made. An active trade is carried on in the manufactured goods, and in timber, hams, and sausages. The leading commercial towns are 13ielefeld, Iserlohn, and Dortmund. Minden has a port on the Weser ; Beverungen is the centre of the corn trade ; and Paderborn is the chief wool-market. The roads are good, and the railways numerous and convenient.
The population in 1885 was 2,202,726, or 282 per square mile. About 52 per cent. are Roman Catholics, most of whom are found in the southern district of Arnsberg. About 4612 per cent. are Protestants, the remainder are Jews and others. Education is well attended to. The seat of government is at Miinster ; and the province is divided into the three districts of Minden, Miinster, and Arnsberg. It has thirty-one members in the Prussian parliament, and seventeen in the imperial diet.
Westphalia was the name given to the western portion of the early duchy of SAXONY (vol. xxi. p. 351). When Henry the Lion fell under the ban of the empire his Saxon domains were distributed by the emperor. The Sauerland and some other parts of Westphalia fell to the archbishops of Cologne, who afterwards received from Frederick Barbarossa the title of dukes of -Westphalia and Angria. The northern portion of the original Westphalia became the nucleus of the circle of Westphalia in Maximilian's administrative organization of the empire, while the duchy of Westphalia, as all apanage of Cologne, was included in the scattered circle of the Lower Rhine. The circle of Westphalia embraced, roughly speaking, what is now Oldenburg, Hanover to the west of the Weser, the districts of Miinster and Minden, and a few other territories, an area of about 27,000 square miles, which in Maximilian's time was divided among four bishoprics and innumerable small secular states with an aggregate population of about 3,000,000. The peace of Lundville in 1801 transferred all parts of this circle west of the Rhine to France, while in 1803 the duchy of 'Westphalia was granted to the duke of Hesse-Nassau as compensation for his former possessions to the west of the Rhine, which had also been added to France.
In 1807 Napoleon constituted the kingdom of Westphalia and gave it to his youngest brother Jerome. It comprised all the Prussian provinces as far east as the Elbe, and extended south to Fulda and the Thuringian states, embracing an area of about 14,880 square miles, with a population of 2,000,000. Nearly the whole of Hanover was added to this kingdom in 1810 ; but next year Napoleon again took away the greater part, as well as other territories, leaving, however, 17,740 square miles, with 2,057,000 inhabitants. This kingdom was intended to take the lead in the Confederation of the Rhine. After the battle of Leipsic in 1813 the kingdom of Westphalia was abolished, and things reverted to their previous order until the congress of Vienna rearranged the map of Europe, when Westphalia, as we now understand the term was assigned to Prussia.
The peace of Westphalia, concluded in 1648 at Osnabriick and Miinster, put an end to the Thirty Years' War (see GERMANY, vol. x. p. 501).