Wardha, Or Wurda
WARDHA, or WURDA, a British district in the chief eommissionership of the Central Provinces of India, with an area of 2401 square miles. It lies between 20° 18' and 21° 21' N. lat. and 78° 4' 30" and 79° E. long., and forms a triangle with its apex towards the north-west, the base resting on Chanda district ; on the east it is bounded by Nagpur, and on the west the Wardha river separates it from Berar. Wardhd is hilly in the north, and intersected by spurs from the Satpura range. The central portion includes the three peaks of Malegaon (1726 feet), Nandgclon (1874 feet), and Jaitgarh (2086 feet). From this cluster of hills numerous small streams lead to the Wardhd river on the one side, while on the other the Dham, Bor, and Asocht ncild flow down the length of the district in a south-easterly direction. The Wardhi, and its affluent the Wand, are the only rivers of any importance. To the south the country spreads out in an undulating plain, intersected by watercourses, and broken here and there by isolated hills rising abruptly from the surface. In general the lowlands are well wooded. Leopards, hyaenas, wolves, jackals, and wild hogs abound in the district ; other animals found are the spotted deer, nilgai, wild goat, and antelopes. Among birds are the bustard, partridge, quail, and rock pigeon. There are numerous roads and 65 miles of railway. The district is subject to great variations of climate, and the rainfall at Wardhlt town averages nearly 40 inches.
The census of 1881 disclosed a population of 387,221 (males 195,564, females 191,657), Hindus numbering 328,523, Mohammedans 14,200, Christians 96, and aboriginals 41,933. The district contains five towns with a population exceeding 5000. Wardhsi (5816), the chief town, has wide and regular streets, having been built in 1866. Of the total area 1500 square miles are cultivated; while of the portion lying waste 380 square miles are returned as cultivable. The chief crops are cotton, wheat, other food-grains, and oil-seeds. The only manufacture of any importance is cotton cloth, the greater part of which is exported to Berar and to the districts farther west. Cotton thread, blankets, gunny, and rope are also made, and since the completion of the railway a considerable trade has also sprung up in butter, which finds a ready sale in the Bombay market. But by far the most important article exported is the raw cotton known as " Hinganghats," from the cotton mart of that name. The principal imports are salt, English piece goods, hardware, and spices. In 1886-87 the gross revenue of the district amounted to £99,955, of which the land yielded X51,494. The history of Wardha forms part of that of Nagpur district, from which it was separated in 1862 for administrative purposes.