URBAN IV. (Jacques Pantaloon), pope from 1261 to 1264, was the son of a cobbler in Troyes, studied theology and common law in Paris, became bishop of Verdun, was employed in various missions by Innocent IV., and was made patriarch of Jerusalem by Alexander IV. He was at Viterbo seeking help for the oppressed Christians in the East when the last-named pope died, and after a three months' vacancy he was chosen to succeed him (29th August 1261). As pope he endeavoured, but without success, to stir up a new crusade on behalf of his former diocese of Jerusalem. In domestic matters the chief problems of his pontificate arose out of the competing claims for the crown of the Two Sicilies. Before the arrival of Charles of Anjou, the candidate whom he favoured, Urban died at Perugia on 2nd October 1264. His successor was Clement IV. The festival of Corpus Christi was instituted by Urban IV. in 1264.