fallersleben passeyr literature tyrolese
HOFER, ANDREAS (1767-1810), a Tyrolese patriot, was born October 2, 1767, at St Leonhard, in the Passeyr valley. There his father kept a tavern called the Sandhof, which Hofer inherited, and on that account he was popularly known as the "Sandwirth." In addition to this lie carried on a trade in wine and horses with the north of Italy, acquiring a high reputation for intelligence and honesty. On the outbreak of the war in 1796, he commanded a company of riflemen against the French at Lake Garda, and after the peace of Lundville he took au active part in organizing the Tyrolese militia. After the treaty of Presburg (1805), by which Tyrol was transferred from Austria to Bavaria, Hofer was chosen a member of the secret Tyrolese deputation which went to Vienna to confer with the emperor on the condition of their country ; and when, on the advice of Austria, the whole of Tyrol in April 1809 rose in arms, Hofer was chosen to the command of a large division of the insurgents, and inflicted an overwhelming defeat on the Bavarians at Sterzing. Reinforcements sent by Napoleon defeated the Austrians at Woergl and the Tyrolese at Feuersinger, but Hofer coming to the rescue of his country repulsed the Bavarians with great loss at Innsbruck. Notwithstanding also that Austria after Napoleon's victory at Wagram agreed to evacuate Tyrol, Hofer resolved to maintain the struggle, and on the 13th August, at Berg Isel, routed with great slaughter a combined French and Bavarian force, and completely freed his country from foreign dominion. For some time the internal affairs of Tyrol were administered by an independent Government of which Hofer was the head, but after the peace of Vienna the Bavarians again endeavoured to assert their supremacy, and after a heroic resistance Hofer was compelled to flee for safety to the mountains. A price was set upon his head, and on account of the treachery of one of his most trusted fol:owers, he was captured, January 27, 1810, in a chalet in the Passeyr valley. He was sent to Mantua for trial, and on the 20th February, by the orders of Napoleon, was executed twenty-four hours after Ills condemnation. In 1823 his remains were removed from the place of sepulture at Mantua to Innsbruck, where they were interred in the Franciscan church, and in 1831 a marble statue was erected over his tomb. In 1819 the patent of nobility decreed for him by Austria in 1809 was conferred upon his family by the title. of Von Passeyr.
See Leben end Thaten des ehemaligen Tyroler Insurgenten-Chefs Aide. Hofer, Berlin, 1810; Andr. Hofer end die Tyroler Disurrail027, ins Jahre 1809, Munich, 1811 ; Hormayr, Gesehiehte Andr. Hofer's Sandwirths auf Passeyr, Leipsie, 1845; B. Weber, Des Thal Passeyr end seine BeICOhiler Mit besonderer Bud:skid coif Andreas Hofer end dos Jahr 1809, Innsbruck, 1851 ; ltapp, Tirol int Jahr 1809, Innsbruck, 1852; Beige], Andreas Hofer, Munich, 1874. His history has supplied the materials for tragedies to B. Auerbach and I m mermann.
HOFFMANN, AUGUST HEINRICH (1798-1874), known as Hoffmann von Fallersleben, German poet, philologist, and historian of literature, was born at Fallersleben, in Luneburg, April 2, 1798. He was educated at Helmstedt and Brunswick, and afterwards at the universities of Giittingen and Bonn. His original intention was to study theology, but he soon devoted himself entirely to literature. In 1823 lie was appointed librarian to the university of Breslau, a post which lie held till 1838. He was made extraordinary professor of the German language and literature at the university in 1830, and full professor in 1835 ; but he was deprived of his chair in 184-2 in consequence of his Unpolitisclee Lieder, which gave much offence to the ruling classes of Prussia. He then travelled for some time in Germany, Switzerland, and Italy, and lived for two or three years in Mecklenburg, of which he became a naturalized citizen. The revolution of 1848 brought him back to Prussia, where he was restored to his rights, and received as a pension the " Wartegeld," that is, the salary attached to a promised office which is not yet vacant. He married in 1849, and during the next ten years lived first in Bingerbrack, afterwards in Neuwied, and then in Weimar, where he was one of the editors of the Weintarisehe Jahrbuch. In 186011e became librarian to the duke of Ratibor, and lie retained this appointment till his death on the 20th of January 1874. Fallersleben was one of the best popular poets of modern Germany. In politics he ardently sympathized with the progressive tendencies of his time, and he was among the earliest and most effective of the political poets who prepared the way for the outbreak of 1818. As a poet, however, he acquired distinction chiefly by the ease, simplicity, and grace with which he gave expression to the passions and aspirations of ordinary life. Although he had not been scientifically trained in music, lie composed melodies for many of his songs, and a considerable number of them are sung by all classes in every part of Germany.
The best known of his poetical writings is his Gedielde (8th edition, Berlin, 1874) ; but there is great merit also in his.A/emanIi /*sate Lieder (5th edition, Mannheim, 1843), So/date/dialer (Mainz, 1851), Soldatenleben (Berlin, 1852), Rheinkben (Neuwied, 1865), and in his Paufzia Kinderlieder, Ffiefziy Nene Kinderlicdcr, and Alto end 14'eue Kinderlieder. His Unpolitische Lieder, Deutsch. Lieder (tits o'er Schweiz, and Streijliehter are not without poetical value, but they are mainly interesting in relation to the practical movements of the age in which they were written. As a student of ancient Teutonic literature Fallersleben ranks among the most persevering and cultivated of German scholars, some of the chief results of his labours being embodied in his /force Belgian, Fundgruben fur Gesehiehte deutscher Spraehe end Litemtur, Altdeutsehe Bldtter, Spenders zee deutsehen Literatu•geschichte, and Findlinge. Among his editions of particular works may be named Reineke Vos, Monumenta Elnonensia, and Theophiles. Die Deutsche Philo/ogle ins Grundriss (1836) was at the time of its publication a valuable contribution to philological research, and historians of German literature still attach importance to his Geschidde des deutschen. Kirehenliedes his auf Luther (1832; 3d ed., 1861), Unscre rolksthiindichen Birder (3,1 ed., 1869), and Die deutschen Gesellsehaftslicder des 16 end 17 Jahrh. (2d ed., 1860). In 1808-70 Fallersleben published in 0 vols. an autobiography, Nein Leben : Aufzeichnuegen end Brinnerungen. See also Briefe von lloirmone von Fallersleben end Moritz Haupt an Ferdinand INT (Vienne, 1874) ; Wagner, Hoffmann von Fallersleben, 1818-68 (Vienna, 1869); and Gottschall, Portrots end Studien (vol. v., Leipsic, 1876).