dutch islands east native sumatra borneo java government possessions island
INDIAN ARCHIPELAGO. The East Indian Archipelago or Malay Archipelago, the largest island cluster in the world, lies to the south-east of Asia and to the north and north-west of Australia, and bears the impress in many of its most important characteristics, both natural and historical, of this twofold relation.' As the archipelago does not form a political unity, P different writers assign it very different limits, according as a' they are influenced by one set of considerations or another. New Guinea to the east and the Philippines to the north are sometimes included and sometimes excluded ; Sumatra is sometimes regarded as the most western member of the group, and sometimes that position is given to the Nicobar or the Andaman Islands. From the following survey of the extent of the archipelago the Malay Peninsula and New Guinea are excluded, but the Andaman Islands are admitted as having at least an ethnographical claim. The Balintong Strait, about the 20th parallel of N. lat., may be taken as the northern limit ; and but for a small portion of the islands Timor and Sumba (Sandalwood Island), with their insignificant adjacencies, the southern limit might be stated as the 10th of S. lat. The Andaman Islands take us as far west as 93° E. long., the Aru Islands as far east as 135°. The equator passes through the middle of the archipelago ; it successively cuts Sumatra, Borneo, Celebes, and Jilolo, four of the most important islands. To adopt Mr Wallace's graphic sentences (noting that he embraces New Guinea and the Solomon Islands), the archipelago "includes two islands larger than Great Britain ; and in one of them, Borneo, the whole of the British Isles might be set down, and would be surrounded by a sea of forests. Sumatra is about equal in extent to Great Britain ; Java, Luzon, and Celebes are each about the size of Ireland. Eighteen more islands are on the average as large as Jamaica ; and more than a hundred are as large as the Isle of Wight."
The statistics of the area and population of the several islands can only be given approximately. The following table is based on statements contained in the sixth number of Behm and Wagner's Die Bevolketwng der Erde (Gotha, 1880): - The total area is thus rather less than that of British India, and the population rather more than that of Great Britain and Ireland.
The islands of the archipelago nearly all present bold General and picturesque profiles against the horizon, and at the aPPearsame time the character of the scenery varies from island to island and even from district to district. The mountains arrange themselves for the most part in lines running either from north-west to south-east or from west to east. In Sumatra and in the islands between Sumatra and Borneo the former direction is very distinctly marked, and the latter is equally noticeable in Java and the other southern islands. The mountains of Borneo rise rather in short ridges and clusters from the plain, like islands from the sea ; the arrangement represented on even what are considered authoritative maps being, like much else in the cartography of the archipelago, the product of imagination. Nothing in the general physiognomy of the islands is more remarkable than the number and distribution of the volcanoes, active or extinct.1 Bunning south-east through Sumatra, east through Java and the southern islands to Timor, curving north through the Moluccas, and again north from the end of Celebes through the whole line of the Philippines, they form as it were the rim of a great atoll (to use Dr Schneider's phraseology), rudely resembling a horseshoe narrowed towards the point. The loftiest mountain in the archipelago would appear to be the famous Kina Bahl in Borneo ; the loftiest of the volcanic peaks are Indrapura in Sumatra (12,255 feet), Semeru in Java (12,238), Gunong Agong in Bali (11,726), and Tamboro in Sumbawa (9324 feet).
The geology of the archipelago has not been investigated even with the completeness attained in regard to the zoology and botany ; but there is a very considerable collection of material in the publications of the milling engineers of the Dutch Government (Jaarboek lifiintvezen :!Ted. 0. Ind.); and for the Philippines a valuable " Menioria geologicominera " has been printed in the Boletino of the Commission of the Geological Map of Spain (Madrid, 1876). The results obtained by the Dutch engineers have been summarized by Dr Schneider, " Geologische Uebersicht fiber den holliind.-ostind. Archipel," in Jahrbuch, d. K. K. Geolog. Reichsanstalt, Vienna, 1876, Ed. xxvi. There is a wide and varied representation of the azoic formations - gnelss, mica-schist, hornblende, Jr,c., in Timor (which it may be remarked is geologically one of the best known of the islands), Ceram, Billiton, Banka, &c. Silurian rocks are found in Banka (where they contain the famous tin-mines), Billiton, and the Linga and Riouw archipelago; carboniferous limestone occurs in the north of Timor ; the coal of Batchian is apparently similar to that of the English Carboniferous measures ; and the Coal-measures of Borneo are thought by Van Dyk to be also Palteozoic. The Sumatran coal is of unascertained age. Permian rocks are present in Timor, Celebes, Pulo-Laut, and Sumatra. Of Secondary formations we find both Triassic and Jurassic rocks, the latter represented by Oolites in Timo?, by a coralline limestone in Celebes. Cretaceous rocks occur in both these islands and in Celebes. Throughout the whole archipelago the Tertiary formations have a wide development both in their Eocene and their Miocene divisions. The latter is represented by foraminiferous limestone, and the former by nummulitic limestone. Lignite is freely distributed throughout the Tertiary strata of Java, Sumatra, and Nias. Among the rocks of economic importance may be mentioned granite of numerous kinds, syenite, serpentine, porphyry, marble (at least in southern Java), sandstones, and marls. Coal is worked successfully in Sumatra, Borneo, and Labuan. Diamonds are obtained in Borneo, garnets in Sumatra, Batchian, and Timor, and topazes in Batchian; antimony in Borneo and the Philippines ; lead in Sumatra, Banka, Flores, and the Philippines ; and copper and malachite in the Philippines, Timor, Borneo, and Sumatra. Iron is pretty frequent in various forms, and in some places might be successfully worked. Gold is not uncninnion in the older ranges of Sumatra, Banka, Celebes, Batchian, Timor, and Borneo. Manganese could be readily worked in Timor, where it lies in the carboniferous limestone. Platinum is found in Landak and other parts of Borneo, and mercury in small quantities in Java.
The meteorology of the archipelago has hitherto been studied only in a very vague manner. For Batavia, ill-1 deed, there exists a mass of observations" ; and the observatory there is extending the region of its investigations. At the close of 1879 it had one hundred and twenty-five rainfall stations. A magnetic survey of the islands has been made by E. Van Rijckevorsel, whose report is published by the Academy of Sciences of Amsterdam. The most striking general fact is that, wherever that part of the south-east monsoon which has passed over Australia strikes, the climate is comparatively dry, and the vegetation is less luxuriant and luscious. The east end of Java, e.g., has a less rainfall than the west ; the distribution of the rain on the north coast is quite different from that on the south, and a similar difference is observed between the east and the west of Celebes. According to Dr Bergsma's Rainfall of the East _Indian Archipelago, First Year, 1879 (which, like other publications of the Batavian meteorological office, is printed in English), at thirty-three stations out of fifty-nine the annual rainfall exceeded 100 inches, and at five stations .200 inches. The highest registration was 282 inches, at Padang Pandjang (Sumatra). The north-west monsoon, beginning in October and lasting till March, brings the principal rain season in the archipelago. The midday heat of the sun, it need hardly be said, makes itself powerfully felt. Exposure to its direct rays in Timor, for example, "at any time between 9 a.m. and 3 P.M.," says Mr Wallace (Tropical ll'ature), "would blister the skin in a few minutes almost as effectually as the application of scalding water," and Mr Moseley mentions that on wading into the sea at the Aru Islands he found the heat of the water actually greater than was at all pleasant. But at the same time the general climate cannot be said to be oppressive or unhealthy.
Most of the islands of the archipelago belong to that 1 great forest-belt which, in the words of Mr Wallace, t " girdles the earth at the equator, clothing hill, plain, and mountain with an evergreen mantle." In islands and districts where human civilization has been at work for centuries, the natural covering has in large measure given place to artificial tilth ; and in Timor and several of the south-eastern islands the characteristics of New Guinea - luxuriant herbage and open park-like woodlands - are more or less strikingly predominant,3 The field fur botanical research in the archipelago is still vast and alluring. Among the very giants of the forest the unregistered species must be numerous; and, if we descend to the minor forms, it is a very poor collection that does not yield something absolutely new to science. The ferns, the pitcher plants, and the orchids are especially numerous, and have attracted particular attention. "The volcano of Pangerango in Java is said to have, for example, yielded three hundred species of ferns ;" and Mr Burbidge, in a short excursion in Borneo in 1879, found upwards of fifty species that had not been previously obtained in the island.
For detailed information in regard to the flora, the reader may consult C. G. lc Reinwardt, Veber den Character ler Vegetation am' den Inseln des Ind. Arch finis, Berlin, 1828 ; Belanger, Botaniqut du Voyage aux holes Orientales,1825-1829, Paris, 1832; thevarioum works of C. L. Blume (Huscam botanicum Lagd.-But., Leyden, 1549- 51; Collection des orchidies, Allister., 1858, &c.); W. H. de Vriese, Nouvelles Recherches sur laflore des possessions Neerland. aux lade; Amst., 1815; Hasskarl, Catalogus plantarlint in horto botanice Itogoriensi caltarum, Bee. 1844; F. Dozy and J. II. Molkenboer, De yologia Javanica sea Berl., muscorum frondosorum Arch. Ind., Leyden, 1841-53; li. Zoll n ger, System. l'erzeichni•s der in Ind. Arch. 1812-1848 gesammel[en . . . Pfi'anzcn, Zurich, 1854; Miguel, Flora radertandsch ladle, Amst., ]855,Annelles JJmesei Botanici Lugdano-Bataci, 1869, and Illustrationsde la Jlore de l'Ar• chapel Indien, 1871 (continued. by Suringar).
If we tarn to the economical aspect of the vegetation, whether natural or cultivated, we cannot fail to be impressed by its varied resources. The list of fruits is a very extensive one; though unfortunately it is only with a very few of them that the untravelled European can have any practical acquaintance. Besides the orange, the mango, the mangosteen, the pomato or shaddock, the guava, the papaw, and the jack fruit, we have the rambutan, the tarippe or trap, the jintawan, the tampu, the bilimbing, the mamhangan, the lanrrsat, the rambi, and the jambosa. The name at least of the durian is now well known (see Dumas), and nearly as strange is the bawangutan (S'cordoprasum borneense), of which the fruit, the leaves, and the branches have all a strong odour and flavour of onions.I Of what more distinctively deserve the name of food-plants the variety is equally notable. Not only are rice and maize (usually called djagong in the archipelago), sugar and coffee, among the widely cultivated crops, but the cocoa-nut, the bread fruit, the banana and plantain (usually called pisang in the archipelago), the sugar-palm ( A renya saccharifera), the tea-plant, the sage-palm, the cocoa-tree (which curiously yields the favourite beverage of the Sulu archipelago), theground-nut, the Caladium esculentum, the yam, the cassava, and others besides, are of practical importance. The cultivation of sugar and coffee owes its development mainly to the Dutch ; and to them also is clue the introduction of tea. They have greatly encouraged the cultivation of the cocoa-nut among the natives, and it now flourishes, especially in the coast districts, in almost every island in their territory, The oil is very largely employed in native cookery. The sago-palm is most abundant in the island of Ceram, but is also found growing wild in Borneo, Celebes, Timor, and other islands of the Moluccas, in the Linga archipelago, and in parts of Sumatra. The product is mainly prepared for export.. Pepper, nutmegs, and cloves were long the objects of the most important branch of Dutch commerce ; and camphor, dammar, benzoic, and other products of a similar kind have a place among the exports. India-rubber and gotta percha, are no longer obtained to the same extent as formerly."
To the naturalist the Indian archipelago is a region of the highest interest ; and from an early period it has attracted the attention of explorers of the first rank. And yet the list of its living forms is far from being completely ascertained. The best known district is western Java, and Timor, the Moluccas, and the Papuan Islands have for the most part been well explored. Only parts of Sumatra, Borneo, and Celebes have been worked, and most of the other islands have yet to be dealt with.3 Zoologically the archipelago belongs to two distinct regions - the eastern or Papuan, and the western or Malay or Indian. This latter region, according to August von Pelzeln (" Tidier die Malayische Siiugethiere-Fauna" in Festschrift Z •eier des fibifundzwanzigjahrigen Bestehens der .K.K. Zool.-Bot. Geseaselivi in near Vienna, 1876), comprises southern China, Tibet, the Himalaya, and Further India, as well as the islands of the archipelago up to Wallace's line. Ho finds six genera of the Quadrumana, fourteen of the Cliiroptera, five of the inseetivora, fourteen of the Carnivor«, six of the Rodentia, of the Edent«ta one only (Planes), five of Ruminants, and three of Pachyderms. Sumatra indicates a connexion with the Malacca peninsula by XemorlIcedus, the elephant, Cymnura, and the tapir. Pithecus, Tursius, and Ptilocereus seem peculiar to the Sunda Islands. The Philippines have Semnopithecus, Nacacus, Cynopithecus, Caleopithecus, Pteropus, Tagtozons, respertilis, Viverra, Paradoxu•ns, I'leronzys, 3Ins, Musa, and Germans.
In his various works Mr Wallace has made the English reader familiar with the most striking features of zoological distribution in the archipelago; and in his Island Lift, especially, the ornithology receives particular attention. For details in regard to the mammals and birds, see Ilorslield, Zoological Prse«rehes in Ara and the Neighbouring Islands., 1834; Van Temminek, Molloy raphies de Ma ot, molog ie, 1827-1829 and 1836-1841; Verhandclingen over de mit merit:flee geseltiedemis der Nederlandsehe over::cesche betittingen, containing papers by S. Muller and II. Schlegel ; zoological appendix to Belcher's Voyage of IL AI. Ship " ma tang," Load., 1860 ; Schlegel, Museum, d'hist. naturelk des Pays-Das.: Revue nalh. et emit. des Collections, Leyden, 1863-76; Id., -Vein. sue les qunmciraananes et lee eheiropteres de l'archipel Amst., 1864 ; De Vogels van Nederlandsch Indie beschreven en afyebeeld, Leyden, 1876 ; Von Rosenberg, " Overzichtstabellen voor de Ornithologie van den indischen Arehipel" in Acta Solent. lad. Neerland., part v.; T. Salvadori, " Catalogo sistematico degli uccelli di Borneo," in Annali di Genova. To the herpetology of the archipelago valuable contributions have been made by P. Meeker, A. C. J. Edeling, and A. B. Meyer. Like so much else of value, their papers are mainly to be found in the Nat. 2'ijd.s.. ran ..Ved. Intl. For the fishes the great modern authority is Bleeker, whose principal work, however, was left unfinished (Atlas iehthyologigue des lades orientates Neemlandaises), and whose smaller contributions are scattered through niece than a dozen periodicals.
The ethnology of the Indian archipelago does not lack its difficult problems ; but some outstanding features are easily described. There are at least two main native races, the brown long-haired Malay and the darker-skinned frizzly-haired Papuan. And to these more recent explorations make it almost certain that a third and probably more thoroughly aboriginal race - the Negrito - must be added, though even specialists who have bad opportunities of direct observation are not unanimous in regard to this i noteworthy element. The Malays are subdivided into an immense number of tribes and peoples in the most various stages of civilization, and broadly differenced from each other by physical and linguistic characteristics. Of chief note are the Malays proper, the Javanese, the Bugis, the Tagalas, and Bisayas, the people of the Moluccas, the Dayaks (mainly in Borneo), the Battaks of Sumatra, the Sulu islanders (closely similar to the tribes of northern Borneo). The Papuan race is chiefly to be found in the eastern section of the archipelago. Besides these three races, whose first connexion with the archipelago dates from before the dawn of history, we have a variety of intrusive elements, traceable by more or less strictly historical documents. A Hindu strain is evident in Java and others of the western islands; Moors and Arabs (that is, as the names are used in the archipelago, Mahometans from various countries between Arabia and India) are found more or less amalgamated with many of the Malay peoples ; and the Chinese form, in an economical point of view, one of the most important sections of the community in many of the more civilized districts. Chinese have been established in the archipelago from a very early date : the first Dutch invaders found them settled at Jacatra ; and many of them, as, for instance, the colony of Ternate, have taken so kindly to their new home that they have acquired Malay to the disuse of their native tongue. Chinese tombs are among the objects that strike the traveller's attention at Amboyna and other ancient settlements.
For the ethnology of the archipelago, see Meinicke, " Ueber die Volkerstamme des Ind. Arehipelagus," in Annalen, der Erdkunde, 1837; Spencer St John," The Population of the Ind. Arch.," in Journal of the Ind. Archipelago, 1849; G. W. Earl, The Native Races of the Ind. Arch.: Papuans, Lond., 1853; Logan, " On the Ethnology of the Ind. Arch.," in Jour. of Ind. Arch., 1847, 1850, 1851, 1853, 1854; and the rich collections in the Tijcischrift v. Ind. T. L. en V. Runde. Au excellent summary of the subject by A. II. Keane will be found as an appendix to 'Wallace's Australasia (Stanford's Compendium of Geography and Travel), Lond., 1879. See also the same writer's papers in Nature, 1881.
There is a vast field for philological explorations in the archipelago. Of the very great number of distinct Ian' guages known to exist, few have been studied scientifically. The most widely distributed is the Malay, which has not only been diffused by the Malays themselves throughout the coast regions of the various islands, but, owing partly to the readiness with which it can be learned, has become the common medium between the Europeans and the natives. The most cultivated of the native tongues is the Javanese, and it is spoken by a greater number of people than any of the others. To it Sundanese stands in the relation that Low German holds to High German, and the Madurese in the relation of a strongly individualized dialect. Among the other languages which have been reduced to writing and grammatically analysed are the Balinese, closely connected with the Javanese, the Battak (with its dialect the Toba), the Dayak, and the Macassarese (see the writings of R. van Eck, H. N. van der Tuuk, A. Hardeland, and B. F. Matthes). Alfuiese, a vague term meaning in the mouths of the natives little else than pagan, is more particularly applied by the Dutch philologists to the native speech of certain tribes in Celebes. The commercial activity of the Buginese causes their language to be pretty widely spoken, - little, however, by Europeans.
A general sketch of the languages of the archipelago will be found in De Gids, 1864, from the pen of Professor Veth. See also Robert Cust, Sketch of the Modern Languages of the East Indies, 1878. A bibliography of this department will be found in Boele van Neusbroek, De beoefening der oostersehe talen in Nederland en zzync overwesche bezillingen 1800-74 (Leyden, 1875).
The statistics of the population are, with the exception of those for a few limited areas, such as Java, of the most unsatisfactory character The estimate of Behm and Wagner in 1880 has been already stated,-34,813,000. This gives the comparatively sparse proportion of 45 to the square mile. The distribution, too, is extremely unequal. In Java we have as much as 364 to the square mile, and in the Philippines about 65, so that for the remaining islands the average is only about 15. It would appear that when left in their natural savage or send-savage condition the natives increase very slowly in numbers, and in some cases hardly maintain their ground, Politically the Indian archipelago is subject to a sixfold division independent native states and tribal territories, the Spanish possessions, the Portuguese possessions, the Dutch possessions, the English possessions, and the state of Sarawak. The Dutch are by far the most influential power in the archipelago. The Spanish authority is confined to the Philippines and the Sulu archipelago, - the latter rendered tributary to them by the native sultan in August 1878 in return for an annual subsidy of 2400 dollars, The English, if the island of Singapore be considered as belonging rather to the Malacca Peninsula, possess only the island of Labuan (19,350 acres), acquired in 1817, - though the establishment of the British Bornean Company in the north of the island may prove the beginning of a new acquisition. To the Portuguese are subject part of Timor and the island of Lambing, in all 6192 square miles. The Dutch on the other hand claim, besides an area of 149,820 square miles in western New Guinea,' a total territory in the archipelago of 566,383 square miles, or forty-four times as much as the governing country. Of the really independent native states the largest is that belonging to the sultan of Brunei (Borneo) ; it is estimated to have an area of about 88,000 square miles The Dutch divide their territory into two great divisions - (l) The Java and Madura, and (2) the Outer Possessions. The former, DIM which comprises also Bali and Lombok, is administratively divided tali: into twenty-three residencies, which are subdivided into departments or assistant residencies. The Outer Possessions are organized in a similar manner, but several portions of them - the West Coast of Sumatra, Celebes and its dependencies, and Achin or Atjh - con. stitute governments with residencies under them. Of the other residencies the principal are those of the East and South-East coasts of Sumatra, Riouw and its dependencies, the island of Banka, Western Borneo, Southern and Eastern Borneo, Menado in the north of Celebes, Timor, Amboyna, and Ternate, the last being nominally the most extensive of all, from including an unusually large proportion of native territory.
The accusation frequently made against the Dutch that they furnished little information about their East Indian possessions has long ceased to have any foundation in fact. The Government publish at Batavia a large annual Regerings Almanak voor Nederlandsch ladle (that of 1880 contains upwards of 1200 pages) ; and every year there is presented to the Dutch parliament a voluminous Kolonicull Verstay, containing elaborate details on all departments of the administration. The Tijdsehrift voor Nederlandseh Indic of Dr W. R. Baron van Hoevell, continued by a society of statesmen and scholars (Zaltbommel), the Bijdragen tot de Taal- Land- en Volkenk-unde van, Nederlandsch Indic of the Royal Institute at the Hague, the Indisehe Gids (Amsterdam), and the Indisehe ilfereu7tr (Haarlem), a monthly organ of trade, show the interest taken in Holland in the East Indian possessions. Of the numerous periodicals published at Batavia it is enough to mention the Statistiek van. den Handel, the Verslag van's lands plantentuin lc Buitenzorg, the Tijdsehrift van het Hon. Instituut rosy Ingenieurs; the Verhandlingen of the Batavian Society of Arts and Sciences, and the same society's Tijdsehrift voor Ind. Taal- Land- en Volkenkunde ; the Ind.
Tijdsehrift, the Natuurkundig Tijdseh., the Geneeskundig Tijdsch., and Tijdseh. voor Xljuerheid en Landbouw. Another Tijdsehrift of the lud. Agricult. Soc. is published at Sainarang.
The population subject to the Dutch is partially indicated in the following table : - How rapidly the Chinese element is increasing is shown by tho fact that in the five years 1874-78 permission to reside within Dutch territory was granted to 13,302 Chinese ; while similar permission was obtained by only 749 "Europeans" (including Armenians and Persians) and 1421 Arabs. Slavery was abolished in the strictly Dutch portions of the Indies on the 1st of January 1860, and under Dutch influence it is being abandoned by the native states. The functions of the governor-general of the Dutch possessions may briefly be described as those of a viceroy. He has command over the land and sea forces, and supreme supervision of all parts of the general administration. his also is the right of declaring war and peace, and of concluding treaties with the native princes and peoples. No sentence of death can be executed in time of peace without his authority, and lie enjoys the right of mercy and amnesty within certain definite limits.
The governor-general is assisted by a council (Rawl van Nederladulsch Indic), consisting of a vice-president and four members (all named by the king), assisted by a secretary. In relation to the executive the council is an advising body ; but in the exercise of the legislative functions, and in certain definite eases, if the governor-general disagrees with his council, he must appeal to the king for direction. The council has its seat at Batavia, and meets every Friday.
The governor-general has besides a cabinet called the "general secretariat," the head of which is the general secretary (assisted by two Government secretaries), who acts as referee and adviser of the administration. Besides his strictly secretarial duties he compiles the SWurtsblad van _Yedcvlandsch Laid and the Regcrings Almanak, year Nederlandsch bale (published since 1816). A general chamber of accounts for the Dutch East Indies; consisting of a president and six members, has its seat in Batavia.
Time administrative departments have undergone considerable changes from time to time. At present there are five directors - (1) of inland administration, (2) of education, religion, and industry, (3) of public civil works, (4) of finances, and (5) of justice, the lastadded in 1869. To the department of justice belong, not only the supervision of the courts and law business, but that of the weeskamers and bocdelkamers or chambers of wardship and legacies, the granting of right of residence, the control of the press, and the right of public meeting. The supreme court has its seat at Batavia, and there is an elaborate and intricate system of subordinate courts of justice, European and native. It is only the chief officials that arc Europeans, in accordance with the dominant policy in the whole constitution of the departments of inland administration and justice, that the relations of native with native should be left as much as possible in the hands of native courts. In all about two hundred native princes are tributary to the Dutch authorities.
To the department of finance belong (1) the taxes and resources of the colony, farmed or unfarmed, so far as they do not depend on some other department ; (2) the control of public auctions ; (3) tl.e mint ; and (4) various duties connected with the colonial budget and the colonial treasury. The custom of farming a large part of the revenue has long been in vogue, and despite the theoretical objections to the system, it has one great advantage, it pays. The sale of opium is one of the principal Government "forms." The cultivation of the poppy is absolutely forbidden in the archipelago, and the demand is satisfied by imports from British India and the Levant. From the Government supply so obtained the contractor is obliged to take a certain definite quantity at a high fixed price ; beyond this he may purchase at ordinary cost price what he finds requisite. The total gain from this monopoly was .41,259,212 in 1879, though the local authorities are instructed to do all in their power to prevent the spread of opium-eating. The whole of what arc called ' the lesser resources" of the Government, consisting of a curious miscellany of taxes, do not yield a third of the opium revenue. Of the branches of the revenue not farmed, the chief are the customs or import and export duties. The average these yielded for the five years 1874-78 was £720,378. Two important taxes, known as the personal tax and the income tax, both levied on Europeans, were introduced in 1879.
The most striking feature in the administration of the Dutch East Indies is undoubtedly this that, instead of being a drain on the resources of Holland, the colony pays annually a most im• portant contribution into the national exchequer. When these possessions were taken over by the mother country they were burdened with a large debt, and the financial state of the colony remained very unsatisfactory for many years ; but on the introduction of the culture system in 1830 the aspect of affairs was speedily changed, and in the fourteen years from 1865 to 1878 there was a clear gain of about £18,000,000 from the colonial administration.
On December 31, 1878, the strength of the military forces in the East Indies was 38,106 men, of whom nearly one half were Europeans. This, however, does not include the militia corps, which were established in certain places. At the same date the East Indian navy comprised 27 ships and 154 cannon. The strength of the military marine was 2934 Europeans and 969 natives, while the vessels were maimed by 2630 Europeans and 1012 natives.
There is an elaborate department of education, public worship, and industry ; but it is astonishing how little has hitherto been accomplished in the European instruction and Christianizing of the natives.
The educational organization consists of two departments - a European and a native ; but it is only within recent years that the latter has begun to attract the active interest of the Government. For secondary European education the great institution is the Gymnasium Willem Ill. at Batavia. In 1878 there were 68 Government primary schools for Europeans in Java and Madura, and 28 in the Outer Possessions, with a total attendance of 7223 children. With the exception of certain medical colleges, all the institutions in the native department are for primary instruction. At the end of 1878 these schools numbered 376 ; 214 of them were in the Outer Possessions. In Java and Madura there is a grand total of 28,000 native children receiving vernacular education, and if the Outer Possessions are included the number must be more than doubled. There are nine training schools for native teachers, most of them established since 1870 ; and in 1879 four schools were opened for sons of the native princes and aristocracy.
The Protestant churches of the Dutch Indies compose a church union, administered very much according to Presbyterian usage. 'lime number of preachers and assistant preachers is limited by Government, the former to 35 and the latter to 21, by a royal decree of 1863. The Roman Catholics are nutter a viear-apostolic, who is also bishop of Batavia, and 20 of their ecclesiastics are paid by the state. Christianity has not as yet made lunch progress among the natives, the returns for 1878 showing only 174,462 native Christians, of whom 225 were Chinese. In Java and .Madura the Christians do not niunber so much as 1 in 2300 of the population. Malionietanism is the religion of a large proportion of the natives, and is at present making more advances in relation to the heathen population than Christianity. The Dutch Government grants passes for about a shilling each to those who wish to make the pilgrimage to Mecca ; and the numbers who set out in 1877, 1878, and 1879 respectively were 6893, 5632, and 5438, besides about 1500 from the native states.
The administration of the department of public works shows that the Dutch have not belied their European reputation for civil engineering and industrial activity in their Indian colony. The roads and bridges, canals and irrigation works, -kk Lich they have executed in their central island win the admiration of foreign visitants. Java is the only island which has even the beginning of a railway system, but considerable progress has been made there ; and the postal and telegraph services are being rapidly developed.
The total imports of private trade (including specie) amounted in 1876 to 116,392,762 florins (1 florin ls. 8d.), and in 1871 to 126,066,462 ; and at the same time 5,118,938 florins and 27,637,954 florins respectively were imported in name of the Government. Of the 109,177,424 florins of general imports (excluding specie) in 1876, 47,694,270 florinswere from Holland, 33,042,859 from other countries outside of the archipelago, and no less thar, 27,632,294 from Singapore alone ; and of the Government imports 2;207,611 florins were from Holland and 2,033,910 from Singapore. In 1877 cotton manufactures figure among the general imports fol 43,566,127 florins, and yarns for 3,325,323 ; rice for 7,798,348 petroleum, 5,430,103 ; cigars, 2,892,369 ; tea, 2,405,511 ; coals, 2,268,520; and iron and iron goods 2,362,525. The opium is the most extensive of the Government imports.
The general exports (specie excluded) were 154,229,384 florins foi 1876 and 161,863,449 for 1877; those of the Government, 51,168,108 and 57,116,672. In 1876 the more important articles showed as follows : - eoffee (private trade) 34,347,870 florins, (Government; 54,208,868 florins; sugar, 62,583,164 florins ; tobacco for the European market, 27,794,755 florins ; gambir, 2,036,592 ; gutty perelia, 1,651,292 ; benzoin, 582,581 ; dammar, 1,025,737 ; India• rubber, 83,171; gum copal, 128, 075; indigo forthe European market, 3,686,942 ; nutmegs, 2,815,787; cocoa-nut oil, 1,220,682 ; pepper, 1,883,349 ; rice, 2,292,907 florins.
The Portuguese were the first Europeans to visit the Indian archipelago. Prior to their appearance off Sumatra in 1509 under Diogo Lopez la Seqniera, a Hindu. civilization, having. its chief seat in Java, had flourished and waned, and Idahometams-m had succeeded to a considerable share of its inheritance. In 1521, when the Portuguese name had become familiar in the islands, the Spaniards under Magellan made their appearance from the east. Ilostilities ensued, which continued till the treaty of 1529, by which the boundary between Spaniards and Portuguese was fixed at 17° E. of the Moluccas,--a line which afterwards proved matter of dispute. The two powers were undisturbed except by an unimportant French expedition till 1596, when the Dutch reached what was destined to be the scene of their greatest colonial achievements. In that year Cornelis Houtinan appeared before Bantam, the chief town of a powerful kingdom in Java, and his expedition was but the precursor of many others from Holland. The eons-/nen:kit success of these enterprises led in 1602 to the establishment of the Dutch East Indian Company, which obtained by Government charter the monopoly of the Dutch trade of the countries between the Straits of Magellan and the Cape of Good Hope, with the right of concluding treaties, appointing governors, SE.c.. The first fleet sent out by the new Company under Van der Hagen was instrumental in capturing the Portuguese fort of Amboyna, and the peace of Treves in 1609 set the Dutch free from interference on the part of the Spaniards. In the same year the states-general appointed a governor-general of the East hlks, giving the Company the right of appointing his successor, subject to their approval.
The instructions given to Pieter Both, the first governor, struck the key-note of that policy which has brought so much obloquy on the Dutch name, and prevented the better features of their colonial administration from being appreciated. He was to "give all endeavour in order that the commerce of the Moluccas, Amboyna, and Banda should belong to the Company, and that no other nation in the world should have the least part." When he came into power there were already Dutch forts at Jilolo, Teruate, and Batchian, and the people of Banda had granted the Dutch the monopoly of nutmegs. It was to the fourth governor (J. P. Coen, 1619-23 and 1627-29) that the Company were most indebted for their territorial aggrandizement. He was the founder of Batavia (1620), and the first to introduce a regular system of accounts in the affairs of the Company. During his rule a treaty was concluded between the English and Dutch companies, but unfortunately' the goodwill which might have resulted from it was not of long duration. Specs (1629-32) gave a start to the trade with Japan, which afterwards grew to vast and various issues. The governorship of Van Diemen (1636-45) was signalized by a series of successes over the Portuguese, and the introduction of the first code of laws. The Dutch power in the archipelago extended rapidly during the latter part of the century. Peace was made with the Portuguese (1661), and various native kingdoms acquired. In the beginning of the 18th century the expense of the necessary military operations and general administration, with other causes, brought the colony into financial difficulties, and in the latter part of the century it was greatly damaged by the rapidly growing predominance of the English in India and Ceylon. The loss of their possessions in India, however, caused the Dutch to give more attention to the archipelago, and they continued to increase their territory. At the same time the state of the finances grew worse and worse, leading to the complete abolition of the Company's authority in 1800, when their possessions and liabilities were both appropriated by the nation. During the term of office of H. W. Daendela (1808-11), the English, who some years before had threatened Batavia and captured Ternate, made themselves masters of the Moluccas, and his successor Janssens was obliged in 1811 to surrender the colony and its capital to Lord 1liinto.1. The British occupation lasted for five years, and during most of this time the post of governor-general was held by Sir Stamford Raffles, who acted perhaps too much on the supposition that the English occupation would be permanent, and was undoubtedly biased by strong prejudice against the Dutch, but at the same time did not forget Lord Minto's advice " to do as much good as he could." To the Dutch themselves this temporary government by the English did ultimate service. The example set by Raffles, when he showed so keen an interest in all that related to the country and the people, proved a stimulus to his Dutch successors ; and the whole relation of the Government to scholarship and investigation has been placed on a more liberal and European footing. 'The restoration of the East Indian possessions to the Dutch was decided by the treaty of 1814, but was not carried out till 1816, when Baron van der Capellan became governor-general.2 A variety of local disturbances followed the change of government, and a more serious war in Java (1825-30) required a special expedition from Holland. The year 1830 saw the beginning of that famous " culture " system, under Van den Bosch, to which so much of the financial success and peaceful administration of the modern Dutch government must be ascribed. In 1846 a new code of laws was introduced. The recent history of the colony may be briefly described as a gradual but steady extension of the authority of the Dutch Government, marked by a succession of revolts, disturbances, expeditions, skirmishes, and subjugations ; a gradual but steady endeavour to develop the resources of the country ; and, it may happily be added, an endeavour growing ever stronger and more enlightened to improve the condition of the subject races.
The literature connected with the East Indian archipelago is a vast and rapidly increasing one. For general information we have - J. Crawford, History of the Indian Archipelago, Edin., 1820, 3 vols.; J. 11. Atom', Notices of the Indian Archipelago, Singapore, 1837; 1'. 11. Roorda van Eysinga, Handboek der Land- en Volltenkunde van Nederl. ludic, 1841 ; A. J. van der Au, Nederlandsch Oost-Indie, Amsterdam, 1845-57,4 vols.; and the A areltalk.skuntlig en statist isch Iroordenboek von 1 eder/ant/8M hula", Amsterdam, 1869, to which Prof. ssor Veth, Jonkheer van Alphen, mid other specialists were i oportant contributors. Of works which contain the results of recent individual explorations, the most important areWallace, The Malay Archipelago, 3,1 ed., London, 1873; Rosenberg, Die Indische Archipel, Leipsic, 1878 ; Backer' L'arcdpel indien, Paris, 1874. Early notices of the archipelago are found In several Arabic writers. The first European to give any details is the Italian traveller Lotlovico di Varthema, but little confidence can be placed in his narrative. Navarret e's Coleccion de documentos; CastanMaids Historia de descobrintento, Li.1)..1), 1633 ; Gaspar Correa's Lendas or Legenda ; Dc Banos, Asia ; Faria y Sousa, Aau Portugue.sa, Lisbon, 1666 ; and A. de Morga, The Philippine Islands, Moluccas, 'Pc.. at the close of the 18th century, translated from the Spanish, llakluyt Society, 1688, may be consulted for the early history ; a critical resume, of which, from the pen of P. A. Title, is to be found in Hydragen tut de Thal- Land- ert Volkenkunde van X. I., The Hague, 1878. Facile princeps among older Dutch works is Valcntijn's voluminous and well-known pod eu Nieute post Indic, Amsterdam, 1734-26. Dealing more restrictedly with the Dutch colony are G. Laut's Geschiedenis tan de cesteging, IT., in Julie, Gron., 1852-80; Saalfeld, 0cschichte des Holland. Oolonialwesen.s in 0. Ind., Gtitt., 1812; Gerlach, Pastes militaires des In. Or., Zaltbommel, 1839; Du Bois, Vies des gourerneurs-generraux, Hague, 1763, with some good plans and rites ; Elout, Bditragen tot de Bennis vas het Koloninal beiteer, 1851, and other olumes of I3ijdragen from his papers, published in 1863 and 1874; P. Myer, Verzanteling van instructien, ordonnancien, dc., roar de rigeriny v..,Ved. Ind., Bat., 1848; Boudewijnse and Van Goest, De indo-Neder/andsche Wagering, 1816-57, Haarlem and Batavia, 1S78-79; E. de Waal, Nedcriandsch Indie en de StatenGeneraal sed, de grondtvet e. 1814, Hague, 1860-61. A bibliography of the Dutch Indies was compiled by J. A. van der Chijs, Proeve eener Nederlandsch Indische bibliograffe, 1659-1870, Batavia, 1873. (11. A. W.)