hardy soil warm april march plant perennial winter
CULINARY HEM:S. - Besides the foregoing esculent and salad plants, there are several minor herbs used. for flavouring and garnishing. For the most part they are dwarf perennial plants requiring to be grown on a dry warm soil in an open sunny aspect, or annuals for Which a warm sheltered border is the most suitable place ; and they may therefore be conveniently grown together in the Caine compartment - an herb garden. The perennials should be transplanted either every year or every second year.
For winter use the tops of the most useful kinds of herbs should be cut when in flower or full leaf and quite dry, and spread out in an airy but shady place so as to part slowly with the moisture they contain, and at the same time retain their aromatic properties. When quite dry they should lie put into dry wide-mouthed bottles and kept closely corked. In this way such herbs as basil, marjoram, mint, sago, savory, and thyme of the aromatic class, balm, chamomile, horehound, hyssop, and rue of the medicinal class, as well as parsley, may be had throughont tl,e season with almost the full flavour of the fresh herb.
Angeliea, Arehangelica oflicinalis. - A stout biennial umbellifer ; sow iu April, in deep rich soil. The stems and leaf-stalks are candied.
Anise, Pimpinella Anisum. - A slender umbelliferous animal ; sow in May in light warm soil ; English summers are scarcely warm enough to bring it to perfection.
Balm, Melissa officinalis. - A hardy labiate perennial ; divide the roots in October ; dry for winter use.
Oeymum Basilicum. - A fragrant labiate annual ; sow in a gentle heat inMa•ch, and plant out on a warm border ; or sow in a warm sheltered place in April or May ; or in winter sow in heat (65°.-70`) in pots or boxes in rich light soil, once a month from November onwards ; that sown in April or May should be cut when in blossom, and dried slowly for winter use.
Boraye, Borago officinalis. - A stout native British annual, used for garnishing ; sow in March and May in an open place, in good soil.
Barnet, Poterium Sangulsorba. - A hardy native perennial ; divide the roots in October or February. It tastes like cucumber.
Caraway, Carlini Carui. - A hardy umbelliferous biennial ; sow in April or May to flower the following summer.
Chanwntile, Anthemis nebilis. - A ham dy native British Composite perennial of prostrate habit ; divide the plants in autumn or spring, planting In rather poor dry soil ; the flower-heads should be gathered successively as they open, and carefully dried and stored.
Chervil, Anthriscus Cerefolium. - A hardy annual umbellifer ; sow in March, and again in October if required for spring use.
Coriander, Coriandrum sativinn. - A hardy annual umbellifer ; sow in March in light loamy soil.
Dill, Anethum graveolens. - A hardy annual umbellifer ; sow in March on a warm border, in rich light soil.
Fccmculum vulgare. - A hardy perennial umbellifer ; sow in March, or divide the roots at the same season.
Finochio, Fceniculum dulee. - A somewhat tender kind of fennel, with two-ranked leaves, fleshy at the base, which part is blanched by warthmg up like celery ; sow in March and successionally if required, in light very rich soil.
Horehound, Marrubium vulgare. - A hardy native labiate perennial, best raised annually- from seeds sown early in March, or by selecting self-sown autumn seedlings.
Hyssop, Ilyssopus officinalis. - A hardy evergreen suffruticose labiate plant ; sow in March or April, young plants being more vigorous than °Mir ones ; it may also be divided in spring.
Lavender, Lavandula vera. - An aromatic undershrub of the labiate order, requiring a light warm dry soil, and increased by cuttings, or by slips taken off with roots about March or April.
Marigold, Calendula of einalis. - A hardy composite annual; sow in March, in any garden soil.
Marjoram, Origanum Majorana. - A tender labiate, usually treated as an annual, and known as Knotted Marjoram ; sow in March in a slight heat, and plant out on a warm sunny border. The Pot Marjoram, Origanum (Mites, and Ire-nter Sweet Marjoram, Origanum heracleoticum, are hardy perennials, growing best in dry warm soils ; divide and transplant in autumn or spring ; a winter supply is provided by cutting the stems, when the plant is in flower, and drying in an airy shady place.
Mint, Mentha viridis. - A hardy native labiate perennial, often called SpearMint. The running underground roots should be taken up in February or March, and replanted in fresh good soil. The young tops may lie obtained early by forcing ; the leafy stems may also be out when at their full growth in summer, and dried for winter use. The Peppermint, Mentha piperita, is cultivated like the spear-no it, only its runners grow above instead of beneath the ground, and require planting accordingly.
Parsley, Petroselinum sativum. - A hardy umbeliiferous biennial ; sow in February, again in May, and again in July to have a good supply, a portion of the last-sown crop being protected by frames or hand-lights, so as to he accessible in frosty weather ; it likes a free soil of good quality, but not too richly manured.
Pennyroyal, Mentha Fulegium. - A hardy native labiate perennial, growing. in moist situations, and best cultivated on a north border, is propagated freely enough by its running rooting stems, which should be well established early in autumn, Rosemary, Rosmarinus officinalis. - An evergreen undershrub of the labiate order, just tender enough to be killed in all but the most sheltered situations by the most severe British winters, But surviving uninjured through those of ordinary severity. It requires a light dry soil and a sheltered situation, and is increased by cuttings or rooted slips taken off in spring.
Rue, Ruts graveolens. - A hardy evergreen rutaceous undershrub, which will grow freely in ordinary garden soil, and is propagated by cuttings or slips, or very freely by seeds, which ripen abundantly.
Sage, Salvia officinalis. - A hardy evergreen undershrub, belonging to the labiates, of whieh there are two varieties, the grecn-leaved and the red-leaved, the latter being somewhat the hardiest ; it is increased by earthing up the outside stems, which after the lapse of a year may be taken otf as muted plants in the following April or May.
Savory, Satureja hortensis. - A hardy labiate annual ; sow on a warm border in April ; when the plants reach the flowering stage, dry a portion for winter use. The Winter Savory, Satureja inomitana, a hardy evergreen andel-shrub, is propagated by cuttings taken off in April and May, or by dividing the plant about April.
Tanacetnin vulgarc. - A hardy composite native perennial, whiea soon grows thick and exhausts the soil, and should therefore be divided and transplanted every second year. If required earlier than the natural season, a root Sr two may he potted and set in a mild forcing-house or Inalnal.
Tarragon, Artemisia Dracunculus. - A hardy perennial composite plant, which grows freely in light dryish soil, and is increased by division in October or March ; it should be transplanted every year or two. Tarry;:, may be had during the winter by potting a root or two early in Decuinia r, and placing them in heat.
Thyme, Thymus vulgaris. - A hardy evergreen undersbrub, requiring a dry warm soil, and an open hut sheltered situation ; it may be raised fri seeds sown in April, and thinned out ; or the old roots may be di yid( d ala• April. The tops should be cut in summer, and preserved for winter lice .• the same way as savory and marjoram. The Lemon. Thyme, Thy mu, (Atoms, is of a more decumbent habit, and may be parted and traulihmt, in spring in genial weather during the month of April.
Mom rood-, Artemisia. Abein thium. - A hardy native composite y rrenn» which will grow in guy soil, but is-most aromatic on those are and poor. The plants iiMaild be replaced an its autumn. w Mai - :- Kitchen. Garden. - Wheel out manure and composts during frosty weather ; trench vacant ground not turned up roughly in autumn. Sow early peas in a cold frame for transplanting. Sow also Dillistone's Early, Alpha, or other first-crop peas, early in the month, and William 1. and Advancer towards the end ; Early Seville and Early Longpod beans ; and short-topped radish in two or three sowings, at a week's interval, all on a warm border; also Hardy Green and Brown Dutch lettuce in a frame or on south border. Plant shallots and Ashleaf potatoes on a warm border. Protect broccoli as it becomes fit for use, or remove to a dry shed or cellar ; lettuces and endive, which are best planted in frames ; and parsley in frames so as to be accessible.
Fruit Garden. - Plant fruit trees in open weather, if not done in autumn, which is the proper season, mulching over the roots to protect them from frost, and from drought which may occur in spring. Prune fruit trees in mild weather or in moderate frosts, nailing only in fine weather. 'Wash trees infested with insects, with a mixture of soap-suds, black sulphur, and tobacco water, or with Gishurst Compound. Take off grafts, and lay them aside in moist earth in a shady place.
Forcing. - Prepare manure for making up hotbeds for early cucumbers and melons, where pits heated with hot water are not in use ; also for Ashleaf potatoes. Sow also in beat mustard and cress for salads, onions for salads ; celery to be pricked out for an early crop ; and Early Horn carrot and kidney-beans on slight hotbeds. Force asparagus, sea-kale, and rhubarb, in hotbeds, in pits, in the mushroom-house, or in the open garden by the use of covers surrounded with warm litter. For pines keep up a bottom heat of 800, and water sparingly ; for cucumbers a top heat of 75° ; for vines in leaf and flower a temperature ranging from 65° to 75°. Keep forced strawberries with swelling fruit well watered. Plant vine eyes for propagation in a brisk heat.
Plant Houses. - Give abundance of air to the greenhouse, conservatory, and alpine frame in mild weather, but use little water. A supply of roses, kalmias, rhododendrons, &c., and of hardy Rowers and bulbs, as lily of the valley, hyacinths, &c., should be kept up by forcing.
Flower Garden. - Plant out tubers and bulbs of border flowers, where neglected in autumn, deferring the finer florists' flowers till next month. Transplant herbaceous plants iu light soils, if not done in autumn ; also deciduous trees, shrubs, and hedges. Lay edgings in fine weather. Sow mignonette, stocks, &c., in pots ; sow sweet peas, and a few hardy annuals, on a warm border. Give auriculas and carnations abundance of air, but keep the roots rather dry, to prevent damping off.
Kitchen Garden. - Sow successional crops of Early Seville beans, and William I., Advancer, Criterion, and other peas in the beginning and end of the month ; early cabbages, to follow the last sowing in August ; red cabbages and savoys towards the end. Sow also Early Horn carrot ; Early Purple-top Munich turnip ; onions for a full crop in light soils, with a few leeks and some parsley. Sow lettuce