Iglau, Or Jieilav
IGLAU, or JIEILAV A, one of the oldest towns of Moravia, and second only to Briinn in respect of size and population, is situated about 50 miles west-north-west of that city, and on the right bank of the Iglawa, close to the Bohemian frontier, in 49° 25' N. lat. and 15° 34' E. long. Iglau is the capital of a circle of the same name, the seat of the judicial authorities, and the military headquarters of the district. It consists of the town proper and the suburbs of Frauen, Pirnitzer, and Spital. Among the principal buildings are the churches of St James, St Ignatius, St John, and St Paul, the town-hall, a gymnasium, a high -school, a military seminary, civil and criminal courts, several hospitals, and the barracks formed from a monastery abolished by order of the emperor Joseph II. There is also a fine cemetery, containing some remarkable monuments. The industrial establishments comprise cloth and linen weaving, paper, earthenware, and glass factories; potash, vinegar, and -dye works ; tanneries, iron foundries, a large brewery, and an extensive cigar factory, employing over 2000 hands. Fairs are periodically held in the town ; and the trade in timber, cereals, and linen and woollen goods is generally brisk. The population in 1870 amounted to about 20,200, most of whom were Germans or of German extraction.
At a very early date Iglau enjoyed exceptional privileges, and they were confirmed by King Wenceslaus III. in the year 1250. 'The town-hall contains a collection of municipal and mining laws -dating as far back as 1389. At Iglau, on July 5, 1436, the treaty was made with the Hussites, by which Sigismund was acknowledged King of Bohemia. A granite column near the town marks the spot where Ferdinand I., in 1527, swore fidelity to the Bohemian states. During the Thirty Years' War Iglau was twice captured by the Swedes. In 1742 it fell into the hands of the Prussians, and in December 1805 the Bavarians under Wrede were -defeated near the town by the archduke Ferdinand d'Este.