INDIAN ANTIQUITIES. - The ancient remains of the Indians are coextensive with their occupancy of tine country, but in general they teach but little concerning their life in prehistoric times. The Atlantic and Gulf coasts are lined with shell-heaps, indicating the sites of ancient villages. Spear or arrow heads are often
ploughed up all over the country, relics, it may be, from some well-fought field.
In the south-western territories, however, are found the most interesting remains of this people, in the form of towns, sonic of great magnitude and extent, built of stone set in mortar. These towns, which were evidently inhabited by a people closely resembling the Moquis and Pueblos, are found in south-western Colorado on the
San Juan river and its branches, in north-western New Mexico, in southeastern Utah, and over the greater part of Arizona. Certain regions appear to have been very densely populated. The largest towns are built in exposed situations, without special precautions for defence, and were plainly inhabited by a mild agricultural race, who were enjoying a period of peace. Others are perched upon high
inaccessible mesas, with strong towers for defence and observation, while others, "cave dwellings," are merely walled-in niches in the cliffs of the caiions, - evidently the last refuge of a hunted, desperate people. Everywhere in the neighbourhood of these ruins are vast quantities of fragments of pottery, some of which is painted in the most elaborate designs. Wicker work and arrow and spear
heads are also found in abundance. These extensive ruins, scattered over a large area of country, show that at some time in the past this region, now arid and desert, supported a large population of a degree of civilization fully equal to that of the Pueblos and Moquis of the present day, and in all probability their ancestors. (n. G.*)
At the copper mines on the northern peninsula of Michigan, there are many evidences that the Indians had been working. Excavations, some of considerable depth, have been found, and in theta stone hammers, evidently used in extracting the native copper. Indeed, it is well known that this metal was a common article of commerce
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