Davenant, Sir William
poet stage printed theatre oxford
DAVENANT, SIR WILLIAM (1605-1668), poet and dramatist, was born in February 1605, at the Crown Inn, Oxford, where his father was a wealthy vintner. It was stated that Shakespeare always stopped at this house in passing through the city of Oxford, and out of his known or rumoured admiration of the hostess, a very fine woman, there sprang a scandalous story which attributed Davenant's paternity to the greatest of poets, a legend which there is reason to believe Davenant himself encouraged, but which later criticism has cast aside as spurious. In 1621 the vintner was made mayor of Oxford, and in the same year his son ]eft the grammar-school of All Saints, where his master had been Edward Sylvester, and was entered an undergraduate of Lincoln College. He did not stay at the university, however, long enough to take a degree, but was hurried away to appear at court as a page, in the retinue of the gorgeous duchess of Richmond. From her service he passed into that of Fulke Greville, Lord Brooke, in whose house he remained until the murder of that eminent man in 1628. This blow threw him upon the world, not altogether without private means, but greatly in need of a profitable employment. He turned to the stage for subsistence, and in 1629 produced his first play, the tragedy of Albovine. It was not a very brilliant performance, but it pleased the town, and decided the poet to pursue a dramatic career. The next year saw the publication of The Cruel Brother, a tragedy, and The Just Italian, a tragi-comedy. Inigo Jones, the court architect, for whom Ben Jonson had long supplied the words of masques and complimentary pieces, quarrelled with his great colleague in the year 1634, and applied to William Davenant for verses. The result was The Temple of Love, performed by the queen and her ladies at Whitehall on Shrove Tuesday, 1634, and printed in that year. Another masque, The Triumphs of tire Prince D'Amour, followed in 1635. The poet returned to the legitimate drama by the publication of three of his cleverest and most successful pieces, the. tragi-comedy of Love and Honour, in 1635, and the tragicomedy of The Platonic Lovers, and the famous comedy of The Wits, in 1636. The masque of Britannia Triumphans brought him into some trouble, for it was suppressed, as a punishment for its first performance having.been arranged for a Sunday. By this time Davenant had, however, thoroughly ingratiated himself with the court ; and on the death of Ben Jonson in 1637 he was rewarded with the office of poet-laureate, to the exclusion of May, who COD sidered himself entitled to the honour. It was shortly after this event that Davenant collected his minor lyrical pieces into a volume entitled Madagascar and other Poems, 1638 ; and in 1639 he became manager of the new theatre in Drury Lane. The civil war, however, put a check upon this prosperous career ; and he was among the most active partisans of royalty through the whole of that struggle for supremacy. As early as May 1642, Davenant was accused before the Long Parliament of being mainly concerned in a scheme to seduce the army to overthrow the Commons. He was accordingly apprehended at Faversham, and imprisoned for two months in London ; he then attempted to escape to France, and succeeded in reaching Canterbury, where he was re-captured. Escaping a second time, he made good his way to the queen, with whom he remained in France until he volunteered to carry over to England some military stores for the army of his old friend the earl of Newcastle, by whom he was induced to enter the service as lieutenant-general of ordnance. He acquitted himself with so much bravery and skill that, after the siege of Gloucester, in 1643, he was knighted by the king. After the battle of Naseby, he retired to Paris, where he became a Roman Catholic, and spent some months in the composition of his epic poem of Gondibert. In 1650 he took the command of a colonizing expedition that set" sail from France to Virginia, but was captured in the Channel by a Parliamentary man-of-war, which took him back to the Isle of Wight. Imprisoned in Cowes Castle until 1651, he tempered the discomfort and suspense of his condition by continuing the composition of Gondibert. Ho was sent up to the Tower to await his trial for high treason, but just as the storm was about to break over his head, all cleared away. It is believed that the personal intercession of Milton led to this result. Davenant, released from prison, immediately published Gondibert, the work on which his fame mainly rests, a chivalric epic in the stanza of Nosce Teipsum, the influence of which poem is strongly marked in its philosophical passages. It is a cumbrous, dull poem, but is relieved with a multitude of fine and felicitous passages, and lends itself most happily to quotation. During the civil war one of his plays had been printed, the tragedy of The Unfortunate Lovers, in 1643. He found that there were many who desired him to recommence his theatrical career. Such a step, however, was absolutely forbidden by Puritan law. Davenant, therefore, by the help of some influential friends, obtained permission to open a sort of theatre at Rutland House, in Charterhouse Yard, where, on the 21st of May 1656, he began a series of representations, which he called operas, as an inoffensive term. This word was then first introduced into our language. The opening piece was 'his own Siege of Rhodes, printed the same year, which was performed with stage-decorations and machinery of a kind hitherto quite unthought of in England. He continued until the Restoration to produce ephemeral works of this -kind, only one of which, The Cruelty of the Spaniards in. Peru, in 1658, was of sufficient literary merit to survive. In 1660 be had the infinite satisfaction of being able to preserve the life of that glorious poet who had, nine years before, saved his own from a not less imminent danger. The mutual relations of Milton and Davenant do honour to the generosity of two men who, sincerely opposed in politics, knew how to forget their personal anger in their common love of letters. Under Charles II., Davenant flourished in the dramatic world ; he opened a new theatre in Lincoln's Inn Fields, which lie called the Duke's ; and lie introduced a luxury and polish into the theatrical life which it had never before known in England. Under his management, the great actors of the Restoration, Betterton and his coevals, took their peculiar French style and appearance ; and the ancient simplicity of the English stage was completely buried under the tinsel of decoration and splendid scenery. Davenant brought out six new plays in the Duke's Theatre, The Rivals, The Man's the Master, comedies translated from Scarron, News from Plymouth, The Distresses, The Siege, The Fair Favourite, tragicomedies, all of which were printed after his death, and not one of which survived their author on the stage. He died on the 17th of April 1668, and two days afterwards was buried in Poet's Corner, Westminster Abbey, with the inscription " 0 rare Sir William Davenant l " In 1672 his writings were collected in folio. His last work had been to travesty Shakespeare's Tempest, in company with Dryden.
The personal character, adventures, and fame of Davenant, and more especially his position as a leading reformer, or rather debaser, of the stage, have always given him a prominence in the history of literature which his writings hardly justify. His plays are utterly unreadable, and his poems are usually stilted and unnatural. With Cowley, he marks the process of transition from the poetry of the imagination to the poetry of the intelligence ; but lie had far less genius than Cowley, and his influence on our drama must be condemned as wholly deplorable. (E.w.o.)