cumm city colonies
CUM1E, Curate, or in Greek 1(4.77, the oldest and one of the most important of the Greek colonies in Italy, was situated on the shore of Campania, between the lakes Acherusia and Liternus, and about six miles north of Beim. The most generally received opinion is, that Cumm was founded by a joint colony, partly from the lEolian Cumm or Cymc and Ftrtly from Chalcis in Eubcca, who agreed that they should call the city by the name of one of the parent states, while it should take rank as a colony of the other. The date of its foundation is unknown ; but it is certain that Cumm had attained a high degree of prosperity while Rome was still struggling into existence. In the 8th century B.C. it had extended its power on every side into Campania ; and, like Sybaris and Crotona, had begun to plant flourishing colonies, and establish itself besides as a maritime power. Of its colonies the most prosperous was Neapolis, destined to survive as the modern Naples ; and among its maritime stations were the harbours of Dicwarchia (Puteo]i) and Misenum. The first event which led to the decline of Cumm was the establishment of the supremacy of the Etruscans by sea ; but a severer blow still was the invasion of Campania by that people and their allies about the year 522 B.C. This attack was repelled, though at a great loss to the Cumseans, chiefly by the ability of Aristodemus, who overthrew the existing government, and established a tyranny, which endured for twenty years. At the end of that period he was driven out of the city by the nobles, who had once more become powerful. Twenty-two years later the Cummans, unable any longer of themselves to resist the growing power of the Tuscans, called in the aid of Hero of Syracuse, and with his assistance defeated their opponents. In 520 B.C. the Samnites, a more formidable foe, made themselves masters of Cumm, put the male citizens to the sword, and established a colony of their own in the city. Admitted to the Roman franchise in 338 B.C. Cumm ever after continued faithful to its alliance with Rome ; and in the second Punic war, though by that time it had greatly declined, it held out against Hannibal. In the later ages of the republic it attained a kind of reflected prosperity from the neighbourhood of Baia;, and other favourite retreats of the Roman nobility ; but it is mentioned as " Vacum Curate," " Quieta Cuma," with reference to its half-deserted appearance. In the wars of the Goths and Romans, Cumm once more became for a short time important, as the last stronghold of the Gothic kings in Italy. In 552 it surrendered to the victorious arms of Names ; in the 9th century it was burned by the Saracens ; and in the 13th, having become a rendezvous for robbers and pirates, it was destroyed by the people of Naples. Some remains of Comae are still to be seen. Of these the principal are a ruinous amphitheatre, a brick arch, supposed to be one of the old gates of the city, and several temples named respectively after Apollo, Diana, the Giants, and Serapis. Bronze statues and vases have at different times been dug up. Not the least interesting spot at Cumm was a great cavern in the rock on which the citadel stood, regarded by the Cummans as the place whence the Sibyl propounded her enigmas. This cavern existed unimpaired till the time of Narses, who availed himself of it to undermine the walls of the town ; and the remains are still pointed out to the traveller.