NOVOMOSKOVSK, a district town of Russia, in the government of Ekaterinoslaff, 19 miles to the north-east of the capital of the province. Including several villages which have been incorporated with it, it extends for nearly 7 miles along the right bank of the Samara, a tributary of the Dnieper. In the 17th century the site was occupied by several villages of the Zaporog Cossacks, which were known under the name of Samartchik, and derived their wealth from valuable fisheries. In 1687 Prince Golitzyn founded here the Ust-Samara fort, which was destroyed after the treaty of the Pruth ; it was rebuilt again in 1736, and the settlement of Novoselitsy established, which received a municipal constitution about the end of the last century. The very fertile surrounding country was rapidly colonized, and now has several villages each of more than 5000 and one above 10,000 inhabitants. The population of Novomoskovsk, which numbers 11,000, is chiefly engaged in agricultural pursuits. Some are employed in tanneries, and there is also some trade in horses, cattle, tallow, skins, tar, and pitch. As many as 150,000 head of cattle change hands at the yearly fair. In the immediate neighbourhood is the Samarsko-Nikolaevskii monastery, which is visited by many pilgrims.