NEW-CHWANG, a city of China, in the Manchurian province of Liau-tung (Sling-king or Fing-tien), is situated in 40° 25' N. lat. and 122° 40' E. long., about 35 miles (90 miles by water) from the coast of the Gulf of Liautung, on what is now a small branch of the main eastern affluent of the Liau-ho or Sua-muren. The city proper is a comparatively unimportant place with broken-down walls, but it is surrounded by a number of large and most flourishing suburbs. About the beginning of the present Ta-tsing dynasty (1644) New-chwang was the chief port on the river, but in the reign of Keen-lung, owing mainly to physical changes, it was supplanted by Tien-chwang-tai farther down the stream, and towards the close of the 18th century this had in turn to give place to Ying-tze still nearer the mouth. In ignorance of these facts Newchwang (now scarcely to be reached by a flat-bottomed river boat) was chosen as one of the ports to be opened to foreign trade by the treaty of Tientsin ; and, though Yingtze had of necessity to be adopted as the site of the foreign settlements, Europeans still continue to speak of the port of New-chwang. Ying-tze (otherwise known as Ying-kow, New-kow, and in Mandarin as Muh-kow-ying) lies on the left bank of the Liau-ho on the lowest dry portion of the plain, not much above high-water mark. The British settlement immediately above the town has a river frontage of 1000 yards opposite the deepest of all the reaches, and runs back to the highway leading to New-chwang. Off the mouth of the river there is an extensive bar of hard mud which can only be crossed by certain channels at high tide, when it is covered by from 18 to 20 feet of water ; and the port is altogether closed by ice for four or five months of the year between November and May. But in spite of these drawbacks Ying-tze is the seat of an extensive and growing trade. The staple articles of export are pulse (beans), pulse-cake, and pulse-oil ; and pulse-warehouses and pulse-mills are the characteristic buildings of the town. The cake is a popular article of food with the natives of Kwang-tung and Fuh-keen, and is also largely employed for manuring the rice and sugar fields in the neighbourhood of Shanghae, Amoy, Swatow, &e. Other leading articles of export are castor oil, raw silk, ginseng, and samshu, - this last manufactured with great success in the city of New-Chwang, but very badly in Ying-tze. The port was opened to foreign trade in 1858; in 1882 316 vessels (of 152,871 tons) entered. The total value of the trade was £934,374 in 1864, £2,606,134 in 1878, and £1,904,740 in 1882. In 1864 Mr Meadows Taylor estimated the population of Ying-tze as about 80,000, though the mandarins stated it to be 200,000.