NEWSPAPERS OF OTHER EUROPEAN STATES, Denmark, Sweden, and Norway. - In Sweden the earliest regular newspaper appears to have been the Ordinarie Post-Tiderule of Stockholm, first published in 1643, and continued until 1680, then, after long suspension, revived under the title Post- och InrikesTidning, under which name it is still published daily. Stockholm has also its Aftonbladet. The Post- Tidende was followed by the Svensk Mercurius (1675-83) and the Latin Relationes Curiosm (1682-1701). In 1742 a Swedish newspaper in French (Gazette Francaise de Stockholm) was commenced, and was followed in Papers. Papers. Papers.
In 1882 the newspapers and " other journals," according to Hubbard, numbered 303.
While Denmark, as regards mere news-journals, followed the example of its rival by publishing an Europeasche Zeitung as early as 1663 and the Danske Mercurius in 1666, the political influence of the press is a newer thing in that country than even in Sweden. Until 1830 Copenhagen had but two papers, and they filled their columns with mild extracts from foreign journals. Real activity in this direction dates but from the establishment of the provincial states in 1834. The oldest existing paper is the Berlingske Tidende, which dates from 1749, and was at first published in German. It is now a semi-ministerial journal. The Fddrelandet belongs to the opposition, and in 1848-49 was in a glow of zeal for Scandinavian-ism and " Young Denmark." The total number of political journals in 1849 was 36. Of political and miscellaneous journals together there were in 1879, according to Larousse, 207, of which number 97 were published in Copenhagen. Those belonging to the provinces are of small account. The American consular returns furnished to Hubbard in 1882 give to Denmark 142 (in the text 61 only, but 81 are added in a supplement apparently printed subsequently to the table) of all kinds. So great is the diversity of the most recent accounts. Iceland has in all 12 journals ; 10 of these may fairly be looked upon as newspapers, while 2 are magazines. The 10 include two papers printed in Copenhagen for circulation in Iceland.
The earliest Norwegian paper was the Christiania Intelligentssedler, founded in 1763. Next to this came the Adresseeontors Efterretninger (1765), published at Bergen. Den Constitutionelle was until recently the organ of the Government, and had absorbed an older paper, called Norske Rigstidende. The Morgcnblad is now the daily journal of the popular party, and dates from 1819.
See A. GefTroy, "La presse pdriodique dans les Etats Scandinaves," in Revue des deux Arondes, 1861, iv. 750-765; Larousse, article "Journal," in Grand Dictionezaire, 1878; Hubbard, ut sup., ii. 1297-1300, 1833-1851, 1921, 2580-2582.
The Netherlands and Belgium. - The Nieuwe Tijdinghen of Antwerp,published by Abraham Verhoeven, has been said to date virtually from 1605, in which year a " licence for the exclusive retailing of news " was accorded to him by the archdukes Albert and Isabella. But the claim is conjectural. No copy of any number of this paper anterior to 1616 is now known to exist. It seems probable that the Gazette Extraordinaris Posttijdinghen, published by Wilhem Verdussen between 1637 and 1644, is a continuation of Verhoeven's paper. But, be this as it may, that of Verdussen was certainly the foundation of the well-known Gazette van Antwerpen, which continued to appear until 1827.
Bruges had its Nieuwe Tijdinghen uyt verscheyden Quartieren, published (in black letter) by Nicholaes Breyghel. When this paper was commenced is uncertain, but various numbers of it exist with dates between 1637 and 1645. In one of these (26th July 1644) a Brusselsehe Gazette of the 24th of that month is quoted, apart from which citation no Brussels paper is known of earlier date than 1649. When the first number of Le Courrier veritable des Pays-Bets made its appearance, the publisher (Jean Mommaert) prefaced the first number by an address to the reader, in which he says :" I have long endeavoured to meet with somebody who would give employment to my presses in defending truth against the falsehoods which malignity and ignorance send daily abroad. I have at length found what I sought, and shall now be able to tell you, weekly, the most important things that are going on in the world." This paper became afterwards the Gazette de Bruxelles, then Gazette des Pays-Bas ; and, under the last-named title, it continued. to appear until 1791. The Annales Politiques of Linguet was one of the most remarkable of the political journals of Brussels in the last century. For a time the editor won the favour of the emperor Joseph II. by praising his reforms, and the Government subscribed for 1200 copies of his paper at two louis d'ors each a year ; but here, as in almost every other place of residence during his chequered career, Linguet at length incurred fine and imprisonment. His journal was repeatedly suppressed, and as often resumed under many modifications of title. It was continued in France, in Switzerland (at Lausanne), and in England. At one time it was so popular that a printer in Brussels regularly and rapidly published a pirated edition of it. For a brief period the publication was resumed at Brussels. A complete set extends to eighteen volumes, and ranges in date from 1780 to 1791.1 Mallet Du Pan was, for a time, a collaborator in the editorship. Linguet died by the guillotine in 1794. Le National was a famous paper for a short period prior to the revolution of 1830. Soon after its cessation - its presses were destroyed by the populace on the 26th August - the official journal, Le Moniteur Beige, was established, - " the ministry deeming it indispensable to the success of its great political enterprise that a journal should be created which might expound its views, and act daily upon public opinion " ; and, on decree of the regency, it was published accordingly. It now claims a circulation of 30,500, and the restored National one of 21,100 copies. But L'Etoile outshines both ; according to its publishers, it circulates, on the average, 40,500 copies daily. Hubbard's correspondents assign to Brussels a total of 28 daily newspapers, but this heaps together publications of the most incongruous kind.
The first newspaper published at Ghent, Gazette van Gent, appeared in 1667. Den Vaderlander, begun in October 1829, was, for a long period, one of the most widely circulated of the Flemish journals. La Flandre liberale is now the leading newspaper of Ghent, with a circulation of about 15,000 daily.
The kingdom of the Netherlands has always been rich in news. papers, but they have usually had more weight commercially than politically. Those in most esteem are Het Nieuwe van den Dag (about 25,000 copies) and the Allgemeen Ilandelsblad (both daily) of Amsterdam ; the Haarlemsehe Courant ; 2 and the Nederlanelsche Staats-Courant, and Dagblacl van Zuidholland en 's Gravenhage (originally Journal de la Haye), both printed at the Hague.
See Hatin, Les Gazettes de Hollande, Paris, 1865; Warzde, Essai Historique et Critique sur les ✓ournaux Beiges, Ghent, 1845; Kolb, article " Linguet," in Biographic Universelle; Alex. Chalmers, article " LIngnet," in Gen. Biog. Diet.
Russia, Poland, and Finland. - The earliest gazette of Moscow (Moskovskia Wiedomosti) was issued by order of Peter the Great on the 16th December 1702, but no copy is known now to exist of earlier date than the 2d January following. The whole gazette of the year 1703 was reproduced in facsimile by order of the late Baron de Korff (the able imperial librarian at St Petersburg) in 1855, on occasion of the festival for the 3d century of Moscow university. The existing •iedomasti dates only from 1766 ; its circulation in 1882 has been estimated at 50,000 copies. That of St Petersburg dates from 1718.3 The historian Karamzin established a short-lived Moscow journal (Moskovski Listok), and afterwards at St Petersburg the once widely-known Russian Courrier de la Europe (1802). The profits of the successful Invalide Busse, established in 1815;by Persorovius, were devoted to the sufferers by the war with France. It continues to appear, not in its original weekly form, but daily, and is now published in Russian (Russkii Invalid). It is said to have an average circulation of about 7000 copies (1882). It is the organ of the" old Russia " party, and also of the ministry of war. Adding to the distinctively political journals those of miscellaneous character, the whole number of newspapers published within the Russian states - Poland and Finland excepted - in the year 1835 was 136 ; in 1858 that number had grown to 179, of which 82 were published in St Petersburg and 15 in Moscow ; 132 were printed in Russian, 3 in Russian and in German, 1 in Russian and in Polish, 28 in German, 8 in French, 3 in English, 1 in Polish, 1 in Lithuanian, 1 in Italian. In 1879, under the more liberal rule of Alexander II., the number of political and miscellaneous journals - if we may trust the native authorities used by Lagai - had grown to 293, and of these 105 were under the direct influence of the Government. But, in truth, the period of relaxation of censorship, if strictly examined, will be found to have lasted only from 1855 to 1864, when repressive measures were again and frequently resorted to. Only 107 foreign political journals are now authorized to circulate. The total number of licensed foreign periodicals amounts to about 300, and of that number no less than 154 are in German.
Poland in 1830 had 49 newspapers. Fifty years later the number was still less than 70, of which 54 are in Polish, these numbers including journals of all kinds.
Finland in 1860 had 24 newspapers, half in Swedish, half in Finnish. In 1863 the number had increased to 32, in spite of the zealous opposition of Count de Berg, the governor-general, to all discussion of political events and " subjects which do not concern the people." He was very friendly to journals of gardening and cottage economy, and to magazines of light literature, and did not regard comic papers with anger provided they kept quite clear of politics. Tho paper which was long the chief Finnish organ, Suomctar (founded at Helsingfors in 1847, and circulating to more than 4000 copies), owed much of its popularity to the pains its editors took with their correspondence. The Otthot Wukko-Sanomat (" Uleaborg Daily News ") was for a considerable period the most northerly newspaper of the world, with the one exception of the little journal published at Tromso, in Norway. Uleaborg, with a population of less than 9000, supports 6 periodicals, 4 of which are strictly newspapers.
in 1880 the whole number of newspapers printed within the government of Finland was 46, while the total number of newspapers and journals of all kinds published within the whole Russian empire during the same year was 603. Of these, 417 were printed in the Russian language, 155 of them being official or administrative organs ; 54 were printed in Polish, 40 in German, 11 in Lettish, 10 in French, 7 in Esthonian, 3 in Lithuanian.
See Rath', Bibliographie de Is Presse periodique, Introduction, pp. xxix, c; Bibliographie de la France, January 30, 1875, " Chronique"; Annuaire de is Presse Russe (for 1880), as quoted In Bibliographie de Is France, 1850, "Chronlque,'! p. 19; Lagai, article Zeitungen," ubi sup., 745 sq.; A. Geffroy, "Pe In Presse periodique en Finlsnde," in Revue des deux Mondes, 1860, vi. 771-777; Sampson Low, in Publishers' Circular, 1879, p. 410.
Italy.-The Diario di Roma, although dating only from 1716, may claim to have been the patriarch of the Italian press. It lasted for nearly a century and a half. During its later years it was a daily paper, with a weekly supplement having the somewhat whimsical title Notizie del Glorno. Next to this, we believe, came the Gazzetta Gffiziale di Napoli, which continues to exist. These and their congeners were published under a rigid censorship until far into the present century, and exercised little influence of any kind. The first tentative movement towards a free press may, perhaps, be dated from the effort to establish at Milan, in 1818, under the editorship of Silvio Pellico, the Conciliatore, in which Simonde de Sismondi, Gonfalonieri, and Romagnosi were fellow-writers. But the new journal was suppressed in 1820. The first really effectual effort had to wait for the lapse of nearly thirty years. L'Opinione, which in many respects is the leading journal of Italy, although its circulation is far inferior to that of many of its rivals, was first published in Turin (26th December 1847). It is now published in Rome. It has had, amongst its many editors, Giacomo Durando (a soldier of mark, and twice minister of foreign affairs), Montezenolo, Giovini Bianchi, and Giacomo Dina. At one period it attained, according to credible report, a circulation of 15,000 copies. Its present circulation averages less than the half of that, but few Italian papers are so often met with in other countries. Fewer still are edited with equal ability.
The Gazzetta del Popolo of Turin had in 1855 about 7000 subscribers. In later days its sale has occasionally reached almost 20,000 copies. Hubbard's agents, in 1882, reported its circulation as 8000. The Florence Diritto, originally founded at Turin, in 1851, by Lorenzo Valerio, was edited successively by Macchi, Bargini, and Civinini, and as a radical organ attained great influence. When (under the last-named editor) it displayed a wise moderation in its politics, popularity rapidly declined ; and it has long ceased to appear.
Counting journals of all kinds, there were published in Italy in 1836 185 newspapers ; in 1845, 220 • in 1856, 311 • in 1864, 450 ; ' in 1875, 479. In 1882 the "periodicals" ' icals " of all Itinds 2 numbered 1454, distributed as follows :-Piedmont, 155 ; Liguria, 63 ; Lombardy, 291 ; Venice, 83 ; the Emilia, Z.r.c., 301 ; Tuscany, 178 ; Naples, 243 ; Sicily, 132; Sardinia, 8. The total number of political dailies is 149, of which the Roman district claims 35,3 Naples and Sicily 36, Lombardy 22. Amidst all the vicissitudes of things political in Italy, the press-law of March 1848 remains substantially and in the main the law of to-day. There is neither stamp, caution-money, nor obligatory signature ; but there are provisions-used with great moderation-for a wise and firm repression of libel. It was in Piedmont that the best portion of the press learned the lesson that its duty is rather to fructify and to expand established institutions than to attack them by sap and mine. By the Police Act of November 1859 the vending of newspapers is made subject to due regulation. And by the constitutional law of Italy (June 1974) it is made illegal for newspapers to publish reports of criminal procedure until after the delivery of the verdict or definitive judgment in each case.
See Statistics Amministrativa del regno d'Italia, Rome,1882; Calendario generale, 1876, appendix; Bibliografia Italians, 1876-77, section " Cronaca "; Hatin, Bibliographie de Is Presse periodique, supplement; Annuarfo statislico Italian°, 1881, Introduction, pp. 149 and 150, 328, 329; Charles de 11Iazade, "Les precurseurs Italians," in Revue des deux Nondes, 1367, 1. 906; Andre Folliet, "La presse Italienne et sa legislation," in Revue Moderne, vol. Ii. pp. 659-693, and vol. Hi pp. 87-113, 1869; Cesare Canth, in Dibliografis Italians, xiv. 909 sq., 1880.
Spain and Portugal. -In Spain no newspaper of any kind existed f earlier than the last century.' Even during the early years of the present its capital contented itself with a single journal, the Diario de Madrid. The Peninsular War and the establishment of the Cortes gave the first impulse towards something which might be called political journalism, but the change from total repression to absolute freedom was too sudden not to be grossly abused. The Diario de las Cortes, the Semanario Patriotico (published at Cadiz from 1808 to 1811), and the Aurora Mallorguina (published at Palma in 1812-13) are the first of the new papers that attained importance. In 1814 the circulation or receipt in Spain of English newspapers was prohibited under penalty of ten years' imprisonment.5 Most of the native journals fell with the Cortes in 1823. In the following year Ferdinand decreed the suppression of all the journals except the Diario and the Gaccta of Madrid,6 the Gaceta de Bayona, and certain provincial papers which dealt exclusively with commercial or scientific subjects. At the close of his reign only three or four papers were published in Madrid. Ten years afterwards there were 40 ; but the number was far more noticeable than the value. Spanish newspapers have been too often the mere step- ping-stones of political adventurers, and not unfrequently the worst of them appear to have served the turn more completely than the best. Gonzales Bravo attained office mainly by the help of a paper of notorious scurrility,-El Gieirigay. His press-law of 1867 introduced a sort of indirect censorship, and a system of "warnings," rather clandestine- than avowed ; and his former rivals met craft with craft. The Universal and the Correo were successively the organs of Jose Salamanca. At the end of 1854 the political journals published in Madrid numbered about 40, the most conspicuous being the now defunct Esparta and El Clamor Publico.
Hubbard's agents assign to Spain in 1882 220 newspapers of all sorts, of which 58 appear in Madrid. The same authorities assign to El Correo a circulation of about 10,000 copies, to the Diario de Madrid [? Diario Espaitol] a circulation of 12,275 copies, and to La Vangteardia Federal one of 16,000 copies ; all these are dailies. To the weekly paper, Correspondencia de Esparta, they assign an average sale of 42,000 copies. Cadiz has 5 political newspapers, Seville 4, and B..rcelona 4.
Portugal in 1882 is credited by the resident American consuls with 179 journals of all kinds and of various periodicity. Of this number 68 appeared in Lisbon. The strictly political daily papers of Lisbon are 6 in number ; those of Oporto 3.
See Ford, Handbook of Spain; S. T. Wallis, Spain, her Institutions and Public Alen, 1853, p. 39-95 ; Charlcs de Mazade, " La Revolution et la reaction en Espagne," in Revue des deux Mendes, 1867, v. 501 ; "The Newspaper Press of Spain," in British Quarterly Review, vi. 315-332; Hubbard, Newspaper Directory, ii. 1852-1857, 1877-1893, 2458-9, and 2587-8.
Switzerland.-In 1873 the total number of political and general newspapers in Switzerland was 230. In 1881 they numbered 342, 1 of which 45 may be described as class journals, 297 as political, general, and advertising. Of 226 of the whole number, 53 were of daily issue, 166 appeared twice or thrice a week, and 7 only were of weekly issue. Of 225 political journals, 185 are classed as Progressist " organs, 40 as "Conservative." Zurich claimed 44 ; Bern, 34 ; Vaud, 20 ; Basel, 13; and Geneva, 10. The aggregate average circulation is estimated approximately at 606,000 copies, an average circulation of about 1770 to each newspaper.
A monthly compendium of the news of the day appeared at Rorschach, in the canton of St Gall, as early as January 1597. The editor was a German, one Samuel Dilbaum, of Augsburg. He varied his titles, so that his monthly newsbooks, although really consecutive, do not wear the appearance of serial publications. Sometimes he called his issue Historische Belatio, sometimes Beschrcibung, sometimes Historischc Erzeth/ung.
See Blenter, "Statistiqne de la Presse Suisse," In Journal des Economistes, 1882, xviii. 134; Weller, Die ersten deutschen Zeitungen, Tubingen, 1872; cf. Lagai, in Pierer, ubi sup.; and Hubbard, ii. 1897-1913, 2453-9, and 2588 (supplement).
Orcece.-The few newspapers that made their sudden appearance in Greece during the war of liberation departed as hastily when King Otho brought with him a press-law, one of the provisos of which demanded caution-money by actual deposit. The journal Saviour was established, in 1834, as a Government organ, and was soon followed by Athena as the journal of the opposition. Ten years later 7 distinctively political papers had been established, along with 13 journals of miscellaneous nature. In 1877 there were, of all sorts, 81 journals, of which 77 appeared in Greek, 2 in Greek and French, 2 in French only ; 37 of these wereprinted in Athens, 17 in the Ionian Islands. Of strictly political newspapers there were 12 at Athens and 3 in the Islands. In 1882 the American consul reported 89 periodicals in all, of which 52 were published at Athens.
See Lagai, in Pierer, ut sup., 745; Hubbard, ut sup., 11. 1779-1781, and 2458-9.
aa Roumania and Servia.-Bucharest has now 4 daily newspapers (Romanulu, Timpul, Telegraphulu, Tagblatt), and Galatz one (Voeea Covurluiv,lui). Roumania has in all 19 journals, with an estimated average aggregate circulation of 32,700 copies. Servia at the end of 1877 had 19 political journals. The Government organ (Serbske Novine) dates from 1841, the independent journal (Vidov Dan) from 1861, the clerical organ (Pastii) from 1868.
See Legal, ut sup.; Hubbard, ut sup., li. 2458 sq.
Turkey.-During the embassy (1795) of Verninac Saint-Maur, envoy of the French republic, a French journal was established at Pera. This, possibly, is the pioneer of all Turkish newspapers. Thirty years later (1825) the Spectateur de l'Orient was founded at Smyrna, also by a Frenchman (Alexander Blacquet ?). It was afterwards published under the titles Courrier and Journal de Sntyrne, and its latest editor was a third Frenchman, Bousquet des Champs. In like manner, the Moniteur Ottoman, first of strictly Constantinopolitan journals, was founded by the above-named Blacquet in 1831. It soon changed its language to Turkish, and was edited by Franceschi. The second Smyrna newspaper, Echo de l'Orient, established in 1838, was transferred to Constantinople in 1846. But not one of these papers has survived until now. In 1876 the total number of journals of all kinds published in the capital was 72 (namely, 20 in French, 16 in Turkish, 13 in Armenian, 12 in Greek, 11 in as many other tongues) ; in 1877 it was 80. In 1882 the whole number published in all the Turkish dominions, Asiatic as well as European, is reported as 121 of all kinds and of all varieties of periodicity. Among the papers printed in Constantinople are four Bulgarian journals ; the Istoeh no Vreme is edited by an Englishman. Three other official newspapers for Bulgaria are published by the Turkish Government at Rustchuk, Adrianople, and Salonica. The Arabic Jawdib of the notorious and learned Faris al-ShidialF has long been one of the best-known Oriental journals.
See Bibliografia Italian, 1876, "Creases," p.50; Lagai, ut sup.; Hubbard, II. 1914-1918, 2458-9, 2588 ; Zeitung far Staatswissenschaf t, 1876.