paris librarian rome
NAUDE, GABRIEL (1600-1653), French librarian and scholar, was born at Paris in February 1600. An intense love for books caused him to accept, when only twenty years of age, the appointment of librarian to the president De Mesmes, whom he left in 1626 to finish his medical studies at Padua. On returninut' to Paris in 1628 he was chosen to deliver a panegyrical discourse on the medical school. The credit thus acquired brought him under the notice of Cardinal Bagni, who took .him to Rome and gave him charge of his collection. On Bagni's death in 1641 he became librarian to Cardinal Barberi-ai, under whose patronage he commenced a wearisome controversy with the Benedictines concerning the authorship of De Imitatione part of Mazarin, and for the next ten years his unwearied of the " siecle de Louis XIV. " Including works edited by him, a list of ninety-two pieces is given in the .Naudxana. The chief are Le Marfore, ou diseours contre les libeller, Paris, 1620, very rare, reprinted 1868; Instruction a la France stir la Write de l'histoire des Freres de la Roze-Croix, 1623, 1624, displaying their impostures ; Apologie pour tons les grands personnages faussenzent soupconnez de magic, 1625, 1652, 1669, 1712, - Pythagoras, Socrates, Thomas Aquinas, and Solanon are among those defended ; Advis pour dresser unebibliothegue,1627, 1644, 1676, translated by J. Evelyn, 1661, full of sound and liberal views on librarianship ; Addition a l'histoire de Louys XI, 1630 (this includes an account of the origin of printing) ; Bibliographia politica, Venice, 1633, &c., in French 1642, a mere essay of no bibliographical value ; De studio liberali syntagma, 1632, 1645, a practical treatise found in most collections of directions for studies ; De studio militari syntagma, 1637, esteemed in its day ; Consid•alions politigstes sur les coups d'etat, Rome [Paris], 1639, first edition rare, augmented by Dumay, 1752 (this contains an apology for the massacre of St Bartholomew); Biblioth. Cordesianx Catalogus, 1643, classified ; Jugement de tout cc que a etc imprime contre le Card. Mazarin , Naude's best work, and one of the ablest defences of Mazarin ; it is written in the form of a dialogue between SaintAnge and Mascurat, and is usually known under the name of the latter.
Authorities. - L. Jacob, G. Naudxi tumulus, 1659 ; P. Hal14. Elogium Naudxi, 1661 ; Niceron, Memoires, vol. ix.; L. Jacob, Traicte des plus belles bibliotheques, 1614; Gui Patin, Lettres, 1846; Naucheana et Patiniana, 1703; Sainte-Benve, Portraits Litt., vol. ii.; Revue des Deux Mondes, 1836 ; A. Franklin, Ilistoire de la Bibt. Mazarine, 1860.
NAU.MACHIA, the Greek word denoting a naval battle, was used by the Romans as the name for mimic sea-fights which were shown as a spectacle to the public. The first that is recorded was given by Julius Caesar on an artificial lake which he constructed in the Campus Martins. After this naumachim became a favourite spectacle for the emperors to give to the people. Claudius made a great one on the Lacus Fucinus, Nero another in the amphitheatre at Rome. Gladiators or condemned criminals fought in these battles ; in later times even volunteers took part in them.. The combatants were often dressed in costume ; Augustus showed a naumachia of Athenians and Persians ; Titus acted a sea-fight between Corinth and Corcyra.