Murray, Or Moray
MURRAY, or MORAY, JAMES STUART, SECOND EARL OF (1533-1570), regent of Scotland, was the illegitimate son of James V. by Margaret Erskine, daughter of the fourth Lord Erskine. While only in his fifth year he was appointed prior of the abbey of St Andrews in order that James V. might obtain possession of its funds. Under the tutorship of George Buchanan his intellectual training was carefully attended to, and as early as his fifteenth year he gave evidence of rare courage and decision by an impetuous attack on an English force which had made a descent on the Fife coast, and which be routed with great slaughter. In addition to the priory of St Andrews, he subsequently received those also of Pittenweem and of Mascon (France), but on reaching manhood he manifested no vocation for monasticism. The discourses of Knox, which he heard at Calder, won his high approval, and shortly after the return of the Reformer in 1559 Murray left the party of the queen-regent and joined the lords of the congregation, who resolved to adopt the bold measure of forcibly abolishing the Popish service. After the return of Queen Mary in 1561 he became her chief adviser, and his cautious firmness was for a time effectual in inducing her to adopt a policy of moderation and tolerance towards the Reformers. In 1562 he was created earl of Mar, and soon after married Lady Agnes Keith, daughter of the earl marischal. The earldom of Mar being claimed by Lord Erskine, he resigned the title and property and was created earl of Murray. After the defeat of Lord Huntly, leader of the Catholic party, who died soon afterwards, the policy of Murray net for a time with no obstacle or hindrance, but he awakened the displeasure of the queen by his efforts in behalf of Knox when accused of high treason, and, as he was also strongly opposed to her marriage with Darnley, he was after that event declared an outlaw and compelled to take refuge in England. Returning after the death of Rizzio, he found the sentiments of the queen towards him very greatly altered, and received a full pardon. On the abdication of Queen Mary at Lochleven be was appointed regent. The position was full of temptation and difficulty, but his conspicuous integrity and moderation, joined to unflinching courage and the utmost readiness of resource, proved to be adequate to what the circumstances demanded. When Mary made her escape from Lochleven, he occupied her attention with pretended negotiations until he had gathered his adherents in sufficient force, when he completely defeated her at Langside (13th May 1568) and compelled her to flee to England. Immediately afterwards he frustrated an attempt at insurrection by the duke of Chatelherault, whom he confined in the castle of Edinburgh. The disappointed partisans of the queen resolved to have revenge, and one of their number, Hamilton of Bothwellhaugh, shot him through the body at Linlithgow, 21st January 1570. The wound proved fatal, and he died the same evening.