OAMARU, a municipal borough on the coast of Otago, New Zealand (South Island), 73 miles by rail north from Dunedin, and in 45° 5' S. lat. and 171° 2' E. long., is a thriving seaport. It is the outlet of the largest agricultural district in New Zealand, and comprises land of exceptional fertility. It is on the main railway between Christchurch and Dunedin, and is connected by branch lines with fertile inland districts. A breakwater and mole, constructed of blocks of concrete like those used at Port Said in Egypt, enclose a large and commodious basin in what was an open roadstead ; and the harbour, when completed, will be one of the safest in the colony, and capable of accommodating very large ships. Steamers run three or four times a week between Oamaru and Dunedin. The town is well supplied with gas and water, and is built of white Oamaru limestone, an excellent building-stone abundant in the district. The population in 1881 was 5791 ; and the capital value of the rateable property in 1883 was £810,428. Coal is obtained at the entrance of Shag Valley, 40 miles to the south. The district is famed for its stock, and the fine quality of its grain, which is often equal to that of South Australia ; also for the character of the English grasses laid down there, which flourish in a rich black loam on a limestone formation. The local industries comprise flour-mills, an elevator in connexion with storing grain, a woollen factory, the Oamaru stone company, a boot and shoe factory, a meat-preserving factory, breweries, and a bacon-curing factory. There are several public buildings, including a grammar school, a hospital, an athenaeum, and a public hall.