Newspapers Comparative Statistics
NEWSPAPERS COMPARATIVE STATISTICS, it is almost impossible by any statistical detail to give an idea of the recent advances made - even as regards circulation merely - by' the newspaper press ; but an outline of the general results reached by three statists, who published their summaries respectively in 1828, 1866, and 1882, may have its utility.
The earliest summary is that of Adrien Balbi. It was published in the Revue Encyclopedigue for 1828 (vol. i. pp. 593-603), along with much matter of more than merely statistical interest. The numbers of newspapers published in different countries at that date are given as follows : - France, 490 ; United Kingdom, 483 ; Austria, about 80 ; Prussia, 288 ; rest of the Germanic Confederation, 305 ; Netherlands, 150 ; Spain, 16 ; Portugal and the Azores, 17 ; Denmark, Sweden, and Norway, 161 ; Russia and Poland, 84. The respective proportions of journals to population were - for Prussia 1 to 41,500, German states 1 to 45,300, United Kingdom 1 to 46,000, France 1 to 64,000, Switzerland 1 to 66,000, Austria 1 to 400,000, Russia 1 to 565,000. Europe had in all 2142 newspapers, America 978, Asia 27, Africa 12, and Oceania 9 ; total 3168. Of these, 1378 were published in English-speaking countries (800 of them in the United States), having a population of 154 millions, and 1790 in other countries, with a population of 583 millions.
The second summary is that given by Eugene Hatin in an appendix to his very able Dibliotheque de la Prase pert' °clique. His enumeration of newspapers is as follows ; France, 1640 ; United Kingdom, 1260 ; Prussia, 700 ; Italy, 500 ; Austria-Hungary, 365 ; Switzerland, 300 ; Belgium, 275 ; Holland, 225 ; Russia, 200 ; Spain, 200 ; Sweden and Norway, 150 ; Denmark, 100 ; United States, 4000. Here the proportions of papers to population are Switzerland and United States 1 to 7000, Belgium 1 to 17,000, France and the United Kingdom 1 to 20,000, Prussia 1 to 30,000, Spain 1 to 75,000, Austria 1 to 100,000, Russia 1 to 300,000. Hatin assigns to Europe a total of 7000, to America 5000, and to the rest of the world 250, making in all 12,500.
The third summary is that of Henry Hubbard, published in his Newspaper Directory of the World (New Haven, Connecticut, 1882), a work the value of which is marred by the exclusively commercial spirit that has moulded its compilation, and its want of literary character. Its scope embraces a very considerable number of serial publications which cannot be classed as newspapers. Still - all this being understood - Hubbard's figures, which were collected (chiefly by the American consuls and consular agents in all parts of the world) about 1880, cannot be disregarded. The following are his general results : -