officers service naval ship fleet seamen five ships officer reserve
NAVY PERSONNEL, the personnel of the British navy is composed of two different bodies of men, the seamen and the marines, each of which has its appropriate officers. The latter body is the subject of a separate article (see MARINES).
Officers. - The officers of the navy, exclusive of the marines, are divided into two distinct branches - the military and the civil.
Flag-officers are divided into three ranks, viz., rear-admiral, vice-admiral, admiral. Formerly there were three subdivisions of each grade, according as the officer belonged to the white, blue, or red squadrons, but this distinction has been abolished (see ADMIRAL). There is also the rank of admiral of the fleet: such an officer, if in command, would carry the union flag at the main.
The civil powers and duties of the lord high admiral, or lords commissioners of the Admiralty, are treated of in the article ADMIRAL. Their military powers are more extensive and important. By their orders all ships are built, repaired, fitted for sea, or laid up in reserve, broken up, or sold, put in commission or out of commission, armed, stored, and provisioned, and employed on the home or foreign stations, or on voyages of discovery. All promotion in the several ranks emanates from them; all honours bestowed for brilliant services, and all pensions, gratuities, and superannuations for wounds, infirmities, and long services are granted by them or on their recommendation. All returns from the fleet are sent to the Board of Admiralty, and everything that relates to the discipline and good order of every ship. All orders for the payment of naval moneys are issued to the accountant-general of the navy by the lords commissioners of the Admiralty ; and the annual estimate of the expenses of the navy is prepared by them, and laid before parliament for its sanction. All new inventions and experiments are tried by their orders before being introduced into the service ; all designs of ships must be approved by them ; all repairs, alterations, and improvements in the dockyards, and all new buildings of every description, must be submitted for their decision before they are undertaken.
All flag-officers, commanders-in-chief, are considered as responsible for the conduct of the fleet or squadron under their command. They are bound to keep them in perfect condition for service ; to exercise them frequently in forming orders of sailing and lines of battle, and in performing all such evolutions as may occur in the presence of an enemy ; to direct the commanders of squadrons and divisions to inspect the state of each ship under their command ; to see that the established rules for good order, discipline, and cleanliness are observed ; and occasionally to inquire into these and other matters themselves. They are required to correspond with the secretary of the Admiralty, and report to him all their proceedings.
Every flag-officer serving in a fleet, but not commanding it, is required to superintend alI the ships of the squadron or division placed under his orders, - to see that their crews are properly disciplined, that all orders are punctually attended to, that the stores, provisions, and water are kept as complete as circumstances will admit, that the seamen and marines are frequently exercised, and that every precaution is taken for preserving the health of their crews. When at sea, he is to take care that every ship in his division preserves her station, in whatever line or order of sailing the fleet may be formed ; and in battle he is to observe attentively the conduct of every ship near him, whether of the squadron or division under his immediate command or not ; and at the end of the battle he is to report it to the commander-in-chief, in order that commendation or censure may be passed, as the case may appear to merit ; and he is empowered to send an officer to supersede any captain who may misbehave in battle, or whose ship is evidently avoiding the engagement. If any flag-officer be killed in battle his flag is to be kept flying, and signals to be repeated, in the same manner as if he were still alive, until the battle shall be ended ; but the death of a flag-officer, or his being rendered incapable of attending to his duty, is to be conveyed as expeditiously as possible to the commander-in-chief.
The captain of the fleet is a temporary rank, where a commander-in-chief has ten or more ships of the line under his command ; it may be compared with that of adjutant-general in the army. He may either be a flag-officer or one of the senior captains ; in the former case, he takes his rank with the flag-officers of the fleet ; in the latter, he ranks next to the junior rear-admiral, and is entitled to the pay and allowance of a rear-admiral. All orders of the commander-in-chief are ,issued through him, all returns of the fleet are made through him to the commander-inchief, and he keeps a journal of the proceedings of the fleet, which he transmits every three months to the Admiralty. He is appointed and can be removed from this situation only by the lords commissioners of the Admiralty.
A commodore is a temporary rank, and of two kinds, - C the one having a captain under him in the same ship, and d the other without a captain. The former has the rank, pay, and allowances of a rear-admiral, the latter the pay and allowances of a captain and special allowance as the lords of the Admiralty may direct. They both carry distinguishing pennants.
When a captain is appointed to command a ship of war ( he commissions the ship by hoisting his pennant ; and if fresh out of the dock, and from the hands of the dockyard officers, he proceeds immediately to prepare her for sea, by demanding her stores, provisions, guns, and ammunition from the respective departments, according to her establishment. He enters such petty officers, leading seamen, able seamen, ordinary seamen, artificers, stokers, firemen, and boys as may be sent to him from the flag or receiving ship_ If he be appointed to succeed the captain of a ship already in commission, he passes a receipt to the said captain for the ship's books, papers, and stores, and becomes responsible for the whole of the remaining stores and provisions; and, to enable him to keep a proper check upon the ship's accounts, he is allowed a clerk or assistant-clerk.
The duty of the captain of a ship, with regard to the several books and accounts, pay-books, entry, musters, discharges, &c., is regulated by various Acts of Parliament ; but the state of the internal discipline, the order, regularity, cleanliness, and the health of the crews will depend mainly on himself and his officers. In all these respects the general printed orders for his guidance contained in the. Queen's Regulations and Admiralty Instructions are particularly precise and minute. And, for the information of the ship's company, he is directed to cause the articles of war, and abstracts of all Acts of Parliament for the encouragement of seamen, and all such orders and regulations for discipline as may be established, to be hung up in some public part of the ship, to which the men may at all times have access. He is also to direct that they be read to the ship's company, all the officers being present, once at least in every month. He is desired to be particularly careful that the chaplain have shown to him the attention and respect due to his sacred office by all the officers and men, and that divine service be performed every Sunday. He is not authorized to inflict summary punishment on any commissioned or warrant-officer, but he may place them under arrest, and suspend any officer who shall Misbehave, until an opportunity shall offer of trying such officer by a court-martial. He is enjoined to be very careful not to suffer the inferior officers or men to be treated with cruelty and oppression by their superiors. He is the authority who can order punishment to be inflicted, which he is never to do without sufficient cause, nor ever with greater severity than the offence may really deserve, nor until twenty-four hours after the crime has been committed, which must .be specified in the warrant ordering the punishment. He may delegate this authority to a limited extent to certain officers. All the officers and the whole ship's company are to be present at every punishment, which must be inserted in the log-book, and an abstract sent to the Admiralty every quarter.
The commander has the chief command in small vessels, such as sloops and gun-vessels. In larger vessels he is chief of the staff to the captain, and assists him in maintaining discipline, and in sailing and fighting the ship.
The lieutenants take the watch by turns, and are at such times entrusted, in the absence of the captain, with the command of the ship. The one on duty is to inform the captain of all occurrences which take place during his watch, - as strange sails that may be in sight, signals from other ships in company, change of wind, &c. He is to see that the ship be properly steered, the log hove, and the course and distance entered on the log-board ; and, in short, he is to see that the whole of the duties of the ship are carried on with the same punctuality as if the captain himself were present. In the absence of the captain, the commander or senior executive officer is responsible for everything done on board.
The navigating officer receives his orders from the captain or the senior executive officer. His more immediate duties are those of stowing the ship's hold and attending to her sailing qualities, of receiving and placing the provisions in the ship, so as most conveniently to come at those which may be wanted. He is to take care that the cables are properly coiled in the tiers. The keys of the spirit-room are in his custody, and he is directed to entrust them only to the officer authorized to use them. He has the charge of the store-rooms of the warrant-officers, which he is ordered frequently to visit ; and he is also entrusted, under the command of the captain, with the charge of navigating the ship, bringing her to anchor, ascertaining the latitude and longitude of her place at sea, surveying harbours, and making such nautical remarks and observations as may be useful to navigation in general. He..keeps the ship's log-book and remark-book.
The warrant-officers of the navy may be compared with the non-commissioned officers of the army. They take rank as follows, viz., gunner, boatswain, carpenter; and, compared with other officers, they take rank after sub-lieutenants and before midshipmen. They are charged with the duty of receiving on board from the dockyards, and examining, the stores of their respective departments, and keeping an account of the expenditure of them.
The gunner has the charge of the ship's artillery, and of the powder magazine. He is to see that the locks and carriages are kept in good order, and that the powder is preserved from damp; he is frequently to examine the musketry and small arms, and to see that they are kept clean and fit for service ; and, in preparing for battle, it is his duty to take care that all the quarters are supplied with everything necessary for the service of the guns, and, during the action, that there be no want of ammunition served out. He is frequently to exercise the men at the guns, and to see that they perform this part of their duty with correctness. The armourer and his mates are under the immediate orders of the gunner in everything that relates to the great guns and small arms.
The boatswain is charged with all the stores belonging to his department, consisting chiefly of the ropes and rigging, the latter of which he is ordered to inspect daily, in order that any part of it chafed or likely to give way may be repaired without loss of time. He is always required to be on deck at such times as all hands are employed; he is bound to see that the men, when called, move quickly upon deck, and when there that they perform their duty with alacrity, and without noise or confusion. The sail-maker and the ropemaker are under his immediate orders.
The carpenter, when appointed to a ship, is carefully to inspect the state of the masts and the yards, whether in the dockyard or on board of the ship, to see that they are perfectly sound and in good order. He is to examine every part of the ship's hull, magazine, store-rooms, and cabins. He is every day when at sea carefully to examine into the state of the masts and yards, and to report to the officer of the watch if any appear to be sprung, or in any way defective. He is to see that the ports are secure and properly lined, and that the pumps are kept in good order, as also the boats, ladders, and gratings. The caulker, carpenter's mates, and carpenter's crew are placed under his immediate orders.
The midshipmen are considered as the principal subordinate officers, but have no specific duties assigned to them. In the smaller vessels some of the senior ones are entrusted with the watch ; they attend parties of men sent on shore, pass the word of command on board, and see that the orders of their superiors are carried into effect ; in short, they are exercised in all the duties of their profession, so as, after five years' service as cadets and midshipmen, to qualify them to become lieutenants, and are then rated sub-lieutenants provided they have passed the requisite examination, and are nineteen years of age.
The engineer, when first appointed to a steam-vessel, carefully examines the engines, screw (or paddles), and the boilers, and reports to the commanding officer any defects he discovers. He takes charge of all the engineer's stores and tools, and keeps account of receipts and expenditure. He is never to quit the engine-room during his watch, and visits it frequently at all times day and night. The engineroom artificers, leading stoker, and stokers are under his immediate control.
The paymaster (formerly purser) has the charge of all moneys belonging to the crown, the conduct of all cash transactions, and the charge of all the ship's provisions, and of the serving them out for the use of the crew. The regulations and instructions for his guidance are minutely detailed in the general printed instructions, with all the various forms established for the keeping of his accounts with the accountant-general of the navy, to whom he is immediately responsible. To assist him in the performance of his duties there are assistant paymasters and clerks. The on the paymaster in many parts of his duty regarding the For store duties the paymaster has also a steward under his immediate orders.
The duties of the medical inspectors of hospitals and fleets, the medical officer of a ship and his assistants, the too obvious to require specification.
The petty officers are very numerous ; they are classified as chief petty officers and first and second class working petty officers.
The regulations under which candidates for the several branches of officer are received into the navy will be found in the Navy List, which is published quarterly under the authority of the lords commissioners of the Admiralty. The limits of age vary with the line chosen. Cadets are entered between the ages of twelve and thirteen and a half, and they must pass after entry two years in study on board the " Britannia " before final examination and transmission to a sea-going training ship. Since the foundation and opening of Greenwich Naval College, on 1st February 1873, very great facilities have been given for the higher education of naval officers of all ranks from sub-lieutenants to captains. Engineer officer students are also received.
By an order in council, the following regulations are established for the promotion of commissioned officers of the navy. Midshipmen are required to servo five years as midshipmen or cadet on board some of Her Majesty's ships to render them eligible to the rank and situation of lieutenant; and they must be nineteen years of age. To qualify an officer for sub-lieutenant, he must have served the time, and passed the examination, required to qualify for a lieutenancy. No lieutenant can be promoted to the rank of commander except for gallantry in action until he has served four years as lieutenant, three of them at sea ; and no commander to the rank of captain except for gallantry in action until he has served two years as commander, one of them at sea. Captains become admirals in succession according to their seniority on the list, provided they shall have commanded four years in a rated ship during war, or six years during peace, or five years in war and peace combined. Appointments as navigating lieutenant (formerly master) are no longer made. The old list of masters, now subdivided into staff captains, staff commanders, and navigating lieutenants, will gradually die out, and the duties will be performed by lieutenants and commanders. No person can be appointed gunner unless he shall have served seven years, one of them as gunner's mate or other petty officer, or seaman gunner, on board one or more of Her Majesty's ships; and he must produce a first class certificate in gunnery, and certificates of his good conduct, and undergo the necessary examination. No person can be appointed boatswain unless he shall have served seven years,. - one complete year with the rating, and actually doing the duty, of a petty officer in Her Majesty's navy ; and he must produce certificates of good conduct, and undergo the necessary examination. No person can be appointed carpenter unless he has been six months a carpenter's mate or caulker, or twelve months with the rating of shipwright or carpenter's crew, on board one or more of Her Majesty's ships. No person can be appointed chaplain to one of Her Majesty s ships until he has received priest's orders. No person can be appointed paymaster or assistant-paymaster unless he shall have been rated and have discharged the duties of a clerk for three complete years, and shall produce good certificates. Admission to this class is by limited competition for assistant-clerkships. Admission to the medical class is by open competition. Promotion from surgeon to staff surgeon is conferred on qualified officers twelve years from date of entry.
The long-continued wars towards the close of last century necessarily created a prodigious increase of the commissioned officers of the navy. Their numbers in the following five peace years were In the year 1357 there were on the active list of the navy 371 captains, 530 commanders, 1122 lieutenants, and on the retired and reserved list 129 captains, 243 commanders with rank of captain (besides 113 commanders on reserved half-pay), 254 lieutenants with rank of retired commanders (besides 618 on reserved half-pay). The total number of captains was therefore 743, commanders 897, lieutenants 1740. The warrant-officers increased from the average of about 400 in 1793 and 700 in 1821 to upwards of 1000 in 1857. The total number of officers of the royal navy and royal marines in 1857 was upwards of 7300, excluding mates and midshipmen, clerks, warrant-officers, and engineers, who may be computed at 3000, - making a grand total of 10,300 officers of all ranks.
The chronic disproportion between the number of officers on the active list and the number for whom it was possible to find employment led to many difficulties. Promotion stagnated, and officers in the higher ranks remained in the service long after the time when in the ordinary course of things they should have been retired for age or infirmity. Several schemes of naval retirement were proposed to remedy the evil. Mr Childers, when first lord of the Admiralty in 1870, framed a scheme much of which remains in force, although amendments in it have been found necessary. Full details are given in the Navy List, and a large body of interesting matter connected with the subject may be found in a parliamentary paper dated 11th July 1872. The active list has been reduced to the number in each rank which is deemed to be sufficient for the purposes of the navy, and provision is made for a regular flow of promotion by requiring the retirement of officers at certain specified ages, or after non-service afloat, irrespective of age, for a given number of years. Improved retired pay has been accorded.
As the regulations stand at present admirals and vice-admirals are compulsorily retired at the age of sixty-five ; rear-admirals at sixty, or if their flag has not been hoisted for ten years ; captains are retired at the age of fifty-five, "or at any age if seven years have elapsed since they last served " ; commanders at the age of fifty ; lieutenants at forty-five, " or at any age if five years have elapsed since they last served"; sub-lieutenants (by order in council 5th February 1872) are compulsorily retired at the age of forty. Permission has been given to flag-officers, captains, commanders, and lieutenants to retire some years sooner than the age of compulsory retirement, and arrangements have been made by which they may commute their retired pay, or a part of it, for a lump sum. Staff captains are retired at the age of sixty, "or at any age if they have not served seven years " ; staff commanders at fifty-five ; and navigating lieutenants at forty-five, or after five years' non-service. Chief engineers are retired at fifty-five, or after five years' non-service. Chaplains and naval instructors are retired at the age of sixty, or in case of non-service by the former after five years, by the latter after three years. Of medical officers, inspectors and deputy-inspectors of hospitals are retired at sixty, or after five years' non-service ; fleet surgeons, staff surgeons, and surgeons at fifty-five, or in each case after five years' non-service. Paymasters are retired at sixty. Permission is accorded to these officers also to retire five years sooner than the maximum age.
A maximum establishment of warrant-officers has been fixed, and ages specified at which retirement is compulsory. The object has been to favour promotion, the employment of none but vigorous men, and to reduce the list to the maximum number it is considered desirable to employ.
At present (1883) the total number of the officers of the royal navy and royal marines is about 7900. Of these upwards of 2100 are in the ranks of engineer officers, sub-' lieutenants, midshipmen, naval cadets, clerks, Lizc., and warrant-officers.
All officers of the navy wear a uniform, which is established in pursuance of the pleasure of the sovereign. It consists of blue cloth, with white collars and cuffs to the coats, and various embroidery and epaulets. The epaulets of the officers of the civil branch of the service are embroidered in gold and silver. The full dress, with cocked hats, is worn on state occasions and at courts-martial by all naval officers. The first naval uniform (blue and white) was established in 1748. The identical patterns then issued may now be seen in the United Service Institution. In the reign of William IV. the facings were for a short time changed to red. The last alteration of the uniform was in 1856. The existing regulations may at any time be ascertained by reference to the current number of the Navy List.
Men. - The crew of a ship of war consists of leading seamen, able seamen, ordinary seamen, engine-room artifi- cers, other artificers, leading stokers, stokers, coal-trimmers, boys, and marines. The artificers and stokers and the marines are always entered voluntarily, the latter in the same manner as soldiers, by enlisting into the corps, the former at some rendezvous or on board particular ships. The supply of boys for the navy, from whom the seamen class of men and petty officers is recruited, is also obtained by voluntary entry.
The conditions under which boys are entered in Her Majesty's navy are as follows : - All entrants must understand that they are bound to serve continuously for ten years from the time of their attaining the age of eighteen ; and they will be required to sign an engagement to that effect ; but no.boy will be entered without the written consent of his parents, guardians, or nearest relations. The age for entry is from fifteen to sixteen and a half, and the following are the present standards as to height, &c., which, however, are liable to alteration : - They must produce a certificate of birth, or a declaration made by their parents or guardians before a magistrate, to show they are of the proper age. They must also be of sound constitution, not subject to fits, free from any physical defects or malformation, and able to read and write. No boys will be received from reformatories or prisons, or if they have been committed by a magistrate ; but boys may be admitted from industrial school ships.
Able and ordinary seamen are seldom admitted direct into the navy, as the system of training boys proves very satisfactory. Volunteers are occasionally entered, especially from the naval reserve, and no doubt a large supply of men could be obtained if sought for. The wages given in the merchant service may be higher, but in all other respects the treatment is far superior in the navy : the men have better provisions, continuous employment, and leave on full pay, are subject to much less fatigue and exposure to the weather, are well taken care of in sickness, and are entitled to pensions after twenty years' service or when disabled.
Merchant seamen are admitted into the royal naval reserve, receive an annual payment by way of retainer, perform drill on board Her Majesty's ships, and are engaged to serve in the navy in case of war or emergency. Including the fishermen and boys, who form the second and third classes of this reserve, it is to consist of about 20,000 men.
- The speedy manning of the fleet, on the first breaking out of a war, is one of the most important duties that can fall on the naval administration. A variety of schemes have been brought forward for attaining this end, but all of them have heretofore failed of success, except the compulsory mode of raising men, under the authority of press warrants, issued by the lords commissioners of the Admiralty, by virtue of an order in council, renewed from year to year. On the occasion of the war with Russia in 1855, however, the fleet was manned, for the first time, without recourse to impressment. There likewise issues, on the breaking out of a war, a proclamation from the sovereign, recalling all British seamen out of the service of foreign princes or states ; and commanders of all ships of war are directed to search foreign vessels for such seamen.
The impressment of seafaring men, however anomalous under a free constitution like that of Great Britain, is defensible on state necessity, until it can be shown ;hat the fleet, on an emergency, is capable of being manned without resorting to that measure. In consequence of some doubts being raised on the legality of impressment in the year 1676, when the affairs of the Admiralty were managed immediately under the direction of the king and the great officers of state, a discussion- was held on this point, when it was decided by the judges and crown lawyers, that the king had an indefeasible right to the services of his subjects when the state required them, and that the power of impressing seamen was inherent in the crown, seeing that without it the trade and safety of the nation could not be secured. In the Black Book of the Admiralty is an order by Sir Thomas Beaufort, high admiral to Henry IV., commanding the impressment of mariners for service. in the barge "E. de S.," and punishments were provided for those who failed in service. The statute 2 Ric. II. c. 4 speaks of mariners being arrested and retained for the king's service as of a thing well known and practised without dispute, and provides a remedy against their running away. By statute 2 & 3 Phil. and M. c. 16 any Thames waterman hiding during the execution of a commission of pressing for the royal service is liable to heavy penalties. By 5 Eliz. c. 5 fishermen are exempted from impressment. The subject of impressment is dealt with in many statutes down to the time of George III., and the power to impress in case of necessity is still conferred by the sovereign in the Admiralty patent. At the present stage of the world's history, however, this power would not be enforced, except upon application of the maxim " salus populi suprema lex."
The first instance of impressing men in Ireland seems to have been in the year 1678, when the lord-lieutenant received directions from the privy council to raise 1000 seamen for the fleet. In 1690 the lords justices of Ireland were directed to assist the officers of the navy in impressing men in that kingdom. In 1697 a register was taken of all the seafaring men in Ireland, which amounted to 4424 men, of whom it is noted 2654 were Catholics. On several occasions, during Queen Anne's reign, the lords-justices of Ireland received directions to raise men to serve in the fleet.
In Scotland the mode of raising men by impressment was unknown before the Union ; but in various instances the council of Scotland was directed to raise volunteers for the fleet, each man to have 40s. as bounty.
In 1706 an experiment was tried for the speedy manning of the fleet, by virtue of an Act of Parliament, which required the civil magistrates of all the counties to make diligent search for all seafaring men, and 20s. were allowed to the constables for each man taken up, - the seamen to have pay from the day of delivery to the naval officers stationed to receive them ; if they deserted after that, they were .to be considered as guilty of felony. By the same Act, insolvent debtors, fit for the service, and willing to enter it, were released, provided the debt did not exceed £30 ; and no seaman in the fleet was to be arrested for any debt not exceeding £20. The whole proceeding under this Act incurred a very heavy expense, and totally failed.
In the same year the queen referred to the prince of Denmark, then lord high admiral, an address from the House of Lords, relating to the three following points :(1) the most effectual means for manning the fleet ; (2) the encouragement and increase of the number of seamen ; (3) the restoring and preserving the discipline of the navy. His royal highness submitted these points to such of the flag-officers and other commanders as could be assembled, ' who made a report, recommending (1) that a general register should be kept of all seafaring men in England and Ireland, and that all marines qualified to act as seamen should be discharged from the army; and (2) that not fewer than 20,000 seamen should be kept in employ in time of peace. With regard to the discipline of the navy, they observed that, no particular defect being specified, they could pronounce no opinion on that head.
Reserve. - In addition to the seamen and marines borne on the strength of the navy, there are four lines of reserves at the disposal of the Admiralty : - the coastguard, the seaman pensioner reserve, the royal naval reserve, and the royal naval artillery volunteers.
To qualify a seaman for admission to the coastguard he must be under thirty-seven years of age, have completed eight years' continuous service in man's rating, or such period as the lords commissioners of the Admiralty may from time to time direct, be either a seaman gunner or trained man, be in possession of at least one good conduct badge, and be recommended by his captain.
Petty officers and seamen of Her Majesty's navy, on being pensioned for length of service, are eligible for enrolment in the seaman pensioner reserve provided they are either seamen gunners or trained men, and are under forty-five years of age. Men in the seaman pensioner reserve are required to undergo fourteen days' training annually, and on attaining the age of fifty they are granted the Greenwich Hospital age pension and exempted from further drill, provided they have attended drill every year, and not less than six periods of such drill.
The royal naval reserve comprises those officers and men of the mercantile marine and fishermen who are willing, in consideration of a small retaining salary, to undergo each year a certain number of days' training on board a ship of war or at a naval reserve battery. The regulations in force for the appointment of officers to the royal naval reserve are published in each issue of the Navy List. The men are divided into three classes. (1) For enrolment in the first class a man must be under thirty years of age, and show proof of at least eight years' sea service in foreign-going or regular coasting vessels within the ten years immediately preceding his application, and must have obtained and held the rating of A. B. three years prior to the expiration of such service, or have completed his indentures as an apprentice for a term of not less than four years, one year of which has been served in foreign-going or regular coasting vessels. Men who have been discharged from the royal navy as able seamen with good characters may be enrolled in the reserve if they are physically fit, provided they do not exceed thirty-five years of age. (2) Candidates for enrolment in the second class reserve must not be under nineteen nor above thirty years of age, and must have followed a seafaring life either in foreign-going, coasting, fishing, or other vessels for three years, of which six months at least must have been as ordinary seaman ; they must know the compass, and be able to steer and to pull a good oar. (3) Boys who have been eighteen months under training in a mercantile training ship are eligible for enrolment in the third class reserve at the age of sixteen, provided they are under engagement to join a merchant ship for sea service, are 1 hysically and mentally fit, and can show satisfactory proficiency in gunnery drills, as well as in certain elementary subjects connected with navigation and seamanship. They are eligible for promotion to the second class at the age of nineteen provided they have served six months at sea, and afterwards to the first-class reserve when in all respects qualified as above. Every enrolment in the royal naval reserve is for a period of five years, and on promotion from a lower to a higher class the man is required to re-enrol. The force was originated in 1859, and the officers and men are liable to be called out for general service in the fleet in the event of war.
The royal naval artillery volunteers are enrolled under conditions somewhat akin to those attaching to enrolment in volunteer regiments. Brigades of this force have been formed • at London, Liverpool, and Bristol, with batteries at Brighton, Hastings, Southport, Birkenhead, Carnarvon, Bangor, and Swansea.
The discipline of the navy, or the government of Her Majesty's ships, vessels, and forces by sea, is regulated first parliamentary enactment for the government or the fleet (13 Car. IL § 1, c. 9), and was passed after the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, "to remedy some defects which were of fatal consequence in conducting the preceding war." Previously to the statute of Charles II. the government and discipline as well as the pay of the navy had depended, like the government and pay of the army, upon the quasi-household orders of the sovereign.
Under the Naval Discipline Act, the lords commissioners of the Admiralty are empowered to order courts-martial for all offences mentioned therein, and committed by any person in and belonging to the fleet and on full pay ; and also to delegate the same power to officers in command of fleets and squadrons on foreign stations, which power also may devolve on their successors in case of death or recall. By this Act no court-martial can consist of more than nine or of less than five persons, to be composed of such flag-officers, captains, commanders, and lieutenants, then and there present, as are next in seniority to the officer who presides at the court-martial. Commanders and lieutenants are not required to sit when four officers of higher rank, and junior to the president, can be assembled.
The former penalty of death for cowardice, or other neglect of duty, in time of action, and for not pursuing the enemy, was, by the 19th George III., so far mitigated as to authorize the court-martial "to pronounce sentence of death or to inflict such other punishment as the nature and degree of the offence shall be found to deserve." Under these articles thus mitigated, Admiral Byng would probably not have been condemned to death. The provisions of the present Act (29 & 30 Viet. c. 109) confine sentence of death, without alternative, to cases of traitorous misconduct in the presence of the enemy, and murder. All other offences which were formerly capital may now be dealt with either by sentence of death or by such other punishment as the court may think fit to award under the provisions of the Act ; and penal servitude or imprisonment, with dismissal from the service, are now the severest sentences awarded, flogging having been practically abolished.
The discipline of the navy is also maintained by a system of summary punishments, including short terms of imprisonment, which can be awarded by the captains of ships, under the regulations issued from time to time by the lords of the Admiralty.
The first regular code of printed instructions would appear to be that known as the Duke of York's Sailing and Fighting Instructions, bearing date about 1660, which formed the basis of all the subsequent ones. Much, however, of the internal discipline of a ship of war depends upon the captain ; that officer being empowered to punish the men for minor offences, according to the usage of the service, courts-martial on seamen are rarely found necessary in well-regulated ships. In 1853 a more uniform system, defining the nature and duration of minor punishments, was promulgated by the Board of Admiralty.
By the general printed instructions, the captains of Her Majesty's ships are required to accustom the men to assemble at their proper quarters, to exercise them at the great guns, to teach them to point, fire, &c., under all circumstances of sea and weather. Practice in these respects is obviously much more necessary on board ships than on shore.
At Portsmouth and Devonport regular instruction is given in the theory and practice of gunnery, in the principles which regulate projectiles, in the theory and manipulation of torpedoes, in the use of small arms, and in all the scientific departments of the art of war. Chemistry and electricity as applied to war and warlike stores are also taught practically, and every inducement is given to officers to study and to qualify for the post of gunnery officers in the fleet. Extra rates of pay are given to gunnery lieutenants according to their proficiency. For the training of the men, who up to 1852 were almost devoid of special skill, there was created a class of "seamen gunners" who act as instructors on board ship, under the orders of the gunnery officer. Examinations are held at stated times for the purpose of testing the progress made by officers under training. In the higher education of naval men at Greenwich College gunnery forms one of the principal features.
The necessity for this special training, and for special efforts to induce men to undergo it, will be evident upon comparison between the guns of thirty years ago and those of the present day. The cannon with which the greatest victories of the British navy were won were 12-, 16-, and 24-pounders. Out of 104 guns carried by Nelson's "Victory," 44 were 12-pounders, 30 were 24-pounders, and only 30 were 32's. In the Russian War, 56's and a few 68's constituted the armament of the large war-ships. Now ships go about with 2000-pounder guns - of most scientific make and character. For the proper handling and management of these refined engines of destruction it is clear that very special knowledge and very careful training are required. The issues involved in miss or hit are too momentous to be left to careless or ignorant hands.
The state of health on board of a ship of war is, generally speaking, not exceeded in the most favoured spot on shore ; and the sea-scurvy may now be considered as unknown in the British navy, since the universal introduction of lemon juice, or citric acid, without an ample supply of which no ship is permitted to sail on a foreign voyage. From the official returns collected by Sir Gilbert Blanc, M. Dupin, a French author well versed in naval subjects, drew out the following table, which exhibits at one view the progressive diminution of sickness, death, and desertion in the British navy, calculated on 100,000 men : - Hence it would appear that the diminution of sickness and of deaths was in the proportion of 4 to 1 nearly between the years 1799 and 1813. The diminution of desertions from the hospital in the same period is not less remarkable.
The following returns, of more recent date, show the advance of medical science in this department : - Annexed is a memorandum showing the invaliding and death-rates in the navy afloat, including the deaths in hospital, from 1856 to 1881. Comparison with the dead lists of former years, even those cited above, will show the wonderful decrease caused by greater medical knowledge and better sanitary arrangements on board ship. This will be the more apparent when it is borne in mind that the old statistics show only the deaths in hospital, not those which occurred on board ship, through disease or the enemy. The high death-rate of 1870 is accounted for by the sad loss of the " Captain"; and those of 1878, 1880, and 1881 by the sinking of the "Eurydice" and " Atalanta " and the blowing up of the " Doterel."
The encouragement given to the navy from its first regular establishment has marked it as a favourite service. The sea-pay, the half-pay, and other emoluments have generally been superior to those enjoyed by the army, but subject to great fluctuations in every reign, and to frequent changes in the same reign. From the Black Book of the Admiralty it appears that the pay of the navy was fixed as follows in the time of Richard II.: - " If the admirall bee knight batchellor hee shall have every day at sea four shillings for himselfe, and for each chevalier gooing in his company two shillings, and for every escuier acme twelvepence a day ; and shall have in consideration of thirty hommes (Fumes, at the end of each quarter of a yeare, one hundred markes, and so hee shall have for every one. And shall also have for each archer sixpence a day. And soo everyone of his captains shall have theire wages of him. And if the admirall is a baron he shall have six shillings and eight-pence a day; and if hee is an earle hee shall have thirteen shillings and fourpence a day." The admiral had also fourpence in the pound for all wages paid for his fleet ; but out of this he had "in the night tyme, all the while that the fleet is at sea, to carry at the topp of his mast two lanthornes, to the end that all the masters of the ffleet my know and perceive by the light and the admirall's course, what course they shall steer." "As to the marriners wages upon the voyages of the king or the admirall, each master of a shipp shall have sixpence a day, and every constable (or gunner) of the ffieet shall have the same wages by the day. Each marriner shall have threepence halfpenny per diem, and each marriner shall have sixpence per week for consideration " (or bounty), "and each sea boy shall have twopence halfpenny per diem."
The establishment of half-pay was of slow growth. Though the navy, as we have seen, was put upon a regular establishment under the reign of Henry VIII., neither officers nor seamen received any pay or emolument in time of peace until the reign of Charles II., when in 1668 certain allowances were made to flag-officers and their captains out of the £200,000 a year voted for the whole naval service ; and in 1674 certain other allowances were granted, by order in council, to captains who had commanded ships of the first and second rates, and to the second captains to flag-officers, on the ground, as assigned in the preamble, that they had undergone the brunt of the war, without sharing in the incident advantages of it, as prizes, convoys, and such like, which the commanders of the small classes of ships had enjoyed. But the first regular establishment of half-pay for all flag-officers, captains, first-lieutenants, and masters was by King William, in the year 1693, were borne, and when the total charge was £21,212,012, and the year ended with a navy debt of £8,562,291. This was the largest charge ever made for the navy, except in 1855 (the year of war with Russia), when the charge was £21,394,216.
Below is a statement showing the number of men voted, the number actually borne, and the charge, for typical years between 1690 and 1881 :- In reviewing her resources generally for manning the navy, England may, as Sir Thomas Brassey says, fairly look to the reserves, no less than to the number of men actually borne for fleet service. The coastguard on shore has been maintained for many years at an average strength of 4000 men. The naval reserves have averaged, between 1868 and 1881, 15,785 men. The same authority gave the following figures in 1882 : - pensioner reserve, 1560 first class royal naval reserve, 11,800; second class, 5600 third class, 150 ; and naval artillery volunteers, 1400. The total reserve for manning a war navy was considered by him to be not less than 40,000 men.
Personnel of Modern Navies Compared.
In any comparison of the personnel of modern navies, the question of the strength of the mercantile marine is more important than it is in relation to the materiel. Sir T. Brassey reminds us that, of the 140 English ships whicl were assembled to oppose the Spanish Armada, only 2E belonged to the royal navy, and that Drake, Hawkins, and Frobisher, who commanded the fleet under Lord Howard; were masters in the merchant navy ; also that Howe': victory of 1st June 1794 was gained by the merchant sea. men of the kingdom. It - is estimated by the same authority that, if the system of naval conscription existinh in France were applied to England so as to include, as ii does in France, the crews of coasters, fishermen, boatmen: and the workmen in the private shipbuilding yards and the dockyards, there would be a roll of from 700,000 tc 800,000 men.
France. - The system here was established under Louis XIV., an it comprises a term of compulsory service, by means of which Franc( inscribes on her rolls some 170,000 men, of whom the great majority are fishermen.' The personnel of the navy below the rank of officer is recruited, (1) by the men of the maritime inscription, (2) by voluntary engagements, and (3) in the case of an insufficiency of men of thf first two categories, by a contingent from the general recruiting o: the country told off for the navy.
provided they had served a year in their respective qualities, or had been in a general engagement with the enemy. A regularly established half-pay was further sanctioned by an order in council of Queen Anne in 1700, the conditions of which were, that no officer should enjoy the benefit thereof who had absented himself without permission of the lord high admiral or lords commissioners of the Admiralty, or who had been dismissed for any misdemeanour or by court-martial, or who had not behaved himself to the satisfaction of the lord high admiral, or who should have leisure to go out of His Majesty's dominions, if employed in the merchant service or otherwise, or who enjoyed the benefit of any public employment. Since the above period the rate of half-pay to the several officers of the navy has undergone various modifications. It has included within its area of benefit a larger number of classes of officers. It has also increased enormously in bulk as a non-effective service charge. So great was the increase in this respect, notwithstanding the subdivision of the half-pay list into "retired" and " reserved " sections in addition to the " active " half-pay list, that in the interest of the officers themselves, as well as of the country, it became necessary in 1869 to make a scheme of retirement, in accordance with which officers on the half-pay list, from whatever cause, for more than a prescribed number of years, were permanently retired, and allowed to draw a retired pay, or to commute for a capital sum the value of their pay. Half-pay is not given to officers below the rank of sub-lieutenant in the military branch, or of paymaster in the civil. For further details see the Navy List.
Prize-Money. - This additional incentive to exertion on the part of officers and seamen on board ships of war dates from the earliest time. At an early date rules and regulations were made for the due apportionment of prize of war, a large portion going to the king and his admiral. In 1793 precise regulations, in the present sense of the word, were first issued. By them the proceeds arising from captures from the enemy were divided into eight equal parts, and were distributed by order of ranks. These have been amended from time to time, and were the subject of special orders in March 1854. The existing orders are contained in a royal proclamation dated May 1871, and direct, subject to the under-mentioned provisos, that one-thirtieth part of the value of prizes shall go to the admiral in command of the capturing vessels (if two admirals they are to divide the thirtieth, the senior taking two-thirds, the junior one-third), and of the remainder, or of the whole if no flag share is payable, the captain is entitled to a tenth of the entire proceeds. After these deductions the remainder of the net proceeds is to be distributed in ten classes, so that each officer, man, and boy assisting in the capture of the prize shall receive shares, or a share, according to his class. Officers in the first class, including inspectors-general of hospitals afloat, inspectors of steam machinery, secretary to commander-in-chief are to receive forty-five shares each ; in the second class, including senior lieutenant, staff surgeon, and certain paymasters, thirty-five shares each ; in the third class, lieutenants, surgeons, captain of marines, and some others, thirty shares each ; in the fourth class, including lieutenants of marines, sub-lieutenants, and warrant-officers, twenty shares each. To the fifth class twelve shares each are assigned ; to the sixth, ten shares each ; to the seventh, seven shares ; to the eighth, including able seamen, four shares ; to the ninth, including "idlers," two shares ; and to the tenth, boys, one 'share. Another source of emolument is the percentage charged upon treasure, which, for security's sake, may be conveyed in ships of war on merchants' account.
Another great encouragement for young men to enter the naval service arises from the honours bestowed by the sovereign for any brilliant exploit. Exclusive of peerages and baronetcies, the honours bestowed for gallant conduct in the naval service at present (1883) are the titles of knights grand-crosses of the military order of the Bath, and knights commanders and companions of the Bath, in addition to which there are the civil order of the Bath, and, for colonial services, the order of St Michael and St George. Royal medals have also been granted of late years for various naval services, and distributed alike to the officers, seamen, and marines ; and a number of officers, seamen, and marines have received the Victoria Cross. Good-sdrvice pensions are also awarded to a certain number of flag-officers, captains, and general and field-officers of marines. These are selected according to their standing, and length and nature of services, a statement of which is given, in each ease, in the annual naval estimates presented to parliament. The amount of the good-service pension ranges from £100 to £300, according to rank and service. There are also naval and Greenwich Hospital pensions established for the relief of retired officers of long service, who are old, infirm, wounded, or disabled. Some of these pensions are allotted to each class of officers.
The cost of the British navy has necessarily varied with the times, with the materials used in the construction of can be levied for the service of the fleet. Every sailor who is inscribed is called into active service on completing twenty years of age. During the month in which he accomplishes his twentieth year, or during the mouth which follows his return to France, he is bound to present himself before a commissary of the maritime inscription. He is then enrolled, sent to a _port which is the chief town of an arrondissement, and incorporated in a division of sailors of the fleet. If he be considered fit for service, he can, from the age of eighteen years, forestall his call to active service. The young sailor who joins at eighteen years of age performs his service in two periods. During the first, which lasts for five years, he may, when in France, be given renewable furlough without pay, and can then devote himself to navigation of any description. After this first period he remains for two years longer in the same conditions, on renewable furlough. The time passed in this position of renewable furlough is counted as service to the state for every sailor who engages to navigate only in coasting voyages or in home fishing. After this latter period the sailor cannot again be called out except by decree in case of emergency. After serving for three years, the sailor who has not been sent on furlough is entitled to an increase of 2d. to his daily pay. The levies of sailors for duty with the fleet are first made amongst those who have not hitherto rendered any service to the state, then, in case of insufficiency, amongst those who have the least service, or, in case of equal service, those are taken who have been longest on furlough. Inscribed sailors have alone the right of carrying on maritime navigation or coast fishing, and enjoy various other privileges and immunities. The minimum age for the engagement of naval apprentices is eighteen years, the privilege of making an engagement at sixteen years being reserved to young men leaving the school for ship boys, and to those specially selected by the minister. The maximum age for young men who have not rendered any service to the state is fixed at twenty-four years. This is increased to thirty for musicians, stokers, carpenters, sailmakers, and caulkers who can count at least five years' previous service since the age of sixteen. For pupils and quartermaster mechanicians (quartiers-maitres m4canieiens) and working mechanicians (ouvriers mdeanieiens) the minimum limit of age is eighteen and the maximum twenty-five, if they have not previously served the state, or thirty if they belong to either of the callings above mentioned and have rendered previous service to the state.
Voluntary engagements are only allowed according to the requirements of the service. They cannot be made in the colonies. The conditions are the same as for the army. The engagement is made for five years. Re-engagements can be made by sailors of the fleet for three, four, or five years. They are without conditions of age or service, provided only that their length would not retain warrant officers (ofwiers mariners) in the service beyond the age of fifty-five, and quartermasters and sailors beyond fifty, if they can unite with this age a service of twenty-five years.
For men of the navy who do not belong to the maritime inscription, the time of service is five years and in the reserve four years. They then pass immediately into the reserve of the territorial army, in which they remain until they attain forty years of age. The contingent is furnished in proper proportion from each canton, and is composed of the young men comprised in the first part of the cantonal recruiting list, to whom the lowest numbers have fallen when drawing lots.
The number of men obtained by the general recruiting was 6056 in 1873, 7040 in 1874, 6406 in 1875, and 4326 in 1876.
The sailors on shore are divided into five divisions, of which two (those at Brest and Toulon) are of the first class and three are of the second class. In each division there is a council of administration, entrusted with clothing and pay duties, and, in fact, with all administrative questions. Each first class division consists of a staff and of depot companies, as follows: - one company of seamen gunners (matelots canonniers), one company of seamen fusiliers (matelots fusiliers), one company of mechanicians and stokers, three companies of sailors of the maritime inscription, one company of sailors from the general recruiting. The divisions of the second class are each composed of a staff and depot companies as follows: - one company of special branches, two companies of sailors of the maritime inscription and from the general recruiting. Each of these companies is divided into two sections. The division at Lorient comprises, in addition, an instruction battalion of fusilier apprentices. In each division there is an elementary school, a school for teaching bookkeeping to quartermaster-serjeants, a gymnasium, a fencing school, and a swimming school. In the two first divisions there are also music schools. The first masters and second masters belonging to the different special branches and professions form the cadre of the warrant officers of the fleet. When of equal grade, they are classed in the following order: - navigation, gunnery, musketry, steering, mechanicians, carpenters, sailmakers, and caulkers. When not serving afloat or in the divisions, these masters are placed in disponibilite at their homes, with reduced pay, and are recalled to active service according to roster. The budget for 1878 shows that eighty-nine officiers de vaisseau are to be employed with the shore divisions of crews and with the establishment for pupils. The number of men provided for is as below (bandmasters, officers, quartermasters, sailors, boys, and supernumeraries): - on shore, 8438; afloat, 25,063; reserve, 1607; total, 35,108.
The marine infantry is not employed in service on board men-of-war in the same manner as the marines of the British navy. Its duties are to garrison the five military ports and the colonies, and to take part in maritime and other wars. When necessary, it furnishes detachments on board ships belonging to the state.
Germany .1 - The whole of the maritime population, inclusive of the technical personnel, arc absolved from land duties, but are liable to serve in the fleet. The distribution of the annual levy is dependent upon the seafaring population, the quota contributed by each state being deducted from its whole liability for the land and sea forces. It used to be the practice to draw exclusively from the seafaring population of the provinces of Prussia, Pomerania, Hanover, Schleswig-Holstein, and other federal states, but it has been found necessary to draw upon the land population of the above provinces in order to make up the required quota.
The personnel of the navy includes the following officers, noncommissioned officers, and men :-1 chief of the admiralty, 4 rear-admirals, 17 (23) captains, 36 (63) captains of corvette, 65 (165) captain lieutenants, 104 (118) lieutenants, 86 (140) sub-lieutenants, and 100 (229) naval cadets, 83 (147) deck officers, 580 (1546) noncommissioned officers of seamen, 4290 (10,267) seamen, 330 (499) non-commissioned officers. Besides these there are 12 engineers, 90 (304) deck officers (engineers and masters), 110 (189) engineers' mates, 28 engineers' apprentices, 580 (2131) firemen, 154 (570) masters' mates, 450 (698) mechanics, 84 (154) staff sergeants for police purposes.
Every German (except in a. few well-defined cases) is liable to service in the army or navy, and is not allowed to provide a substitute nor to purchase exemption. Liability to service commences with the completion of the seventeenth year, and lasts until the close of the forty-second year of age. Of this time, twelve years must be passed in the standing army and landwehr in the case of a soldier, in the fleet and seewehr in the case of a seaman. All men liable to service, who may not be called into the standing army, fleet, landwehr, or seewehr, are liable to be called out in the landsturm in time of war. The estimated seafaring population of North Germany is about 80,000, including fishermen and dock labourers.
Italy.2 - The annual classification of all individuals fitted for sea service takes place according to fixed instructions. The men who are passed as fit and suited for the navy are divided into two categories by lot. -Those of the first category are drawn into the service, and have to serve four years either on board or on shore (they pass the remaining six years on unlimited furlough). The men of the second category, however, are allowed to go at once on unlimited furlough, and are only called up in case of war or similar emergency. They are also liable for service for ten years. Volunteers and boys trained at the various naval training establishments are obliged to serve eight years continuously. The number of men per annum who reach the age rendering them liable for service is about 5050 on an average, of whom 2600 are fit or suited for the service. Of these, from 1500 to 1800 are placed in the first category (200 volunteers). Naval officers are chiefly obtained from the naval schools. Under-officers seldom obtain the rank of officer, and only then after a searching examination. The law on promotion of the year 1871 fixes the rules of promotion for all ranks.
The " eorpo reale equipaggi " is divided into three divisions, each of which is under the command of a post-captain, and belongs to a " dipartimento."3 The total establishment was as follows in 1875 :-741 able seamen, 5526 (including 200 boys) seamen and gunners, 704 artificers, 360 employed in "administration," 1187 engineers and stokers, 168 "guardiani," 29 invalids ; total 8715 men. A body of men has been lately formed for torpedo defence. The estimated seafaring population of Italy is 225,000, chiefly fishermen.
Russia. 4 - The entire male population, without distinction of class, is liable to military service. The number of men required to complete the strength of the army and navy is fixed by the legislature every year on the recommendation of the minister of war, and promulgated to the senate by an imperial ukase. Admission to the service is determined by lot drawing, in which one class only of the population is annually called upon to take part, namely, that which includes all the males who have reached the age of twenty years on the 1st January of the year in question. Persons who have fulfilled certain educational conditions may relieve themselves from lot drawing by enlisting as volunteers. In the naval forces the ordinary term of service is ten years, namely, seven with the fleet and three in the reserve. The total number of young men who had attained the age of twenty years in 1880 was 794,000. The contingent to join on the 1st (13th) January 1881 was fixed at 235,000, and of this number 231,961 were enrolled. According to the statutes the number of sailors in the navy should be about 50,000. Of these in time of peace there are serving afloat 28,000, and employed ashore 12,000, - the remaining 10,000 being on unlimited furlough. In 1879 the appropriation of the conscripts actually enrolled in the navy was 4504 for the Baltic fleet, 446 for the Black Sea fleet, 72 for the Caspian flotilla, and 418 for the Siberian flotilla. The effective was on January 1, 1880, 2303 below the establishment.
Austria-Hungary.1 - The duty of military service is genera], and must be fulfilled personally by every citizen capable of bearing arms. The term lasts for twelve years, of which three are spent in the standing army, seven in the reserve, and two in the landwehr; men who are incorporated in the landwehr at once servo in it for twelve years. In the navy the period of service is for ten years, of which three years are active and seven years reserve service. The conscription is confined to Dalmatia and the coast districts. One-third of the whole complement of officers and men required to man the fleet in time of war is kept continuously afloat in peace ; the -war complement is 8079 of all ranks, of whom 2700 are actively employed ; the war complement comprises (besides rear-admiral and staff of the squadron) - officers, &c., 571; sailors and gunners, 5428; navigating personnel, 362; naval police, 158; engine-room artificers, stokers, &c., 781 ; sanitary personnel, 53 ; tradesmen, 202 ; stewards, cooks, officers' servants, &c., 524,--total, 8079. The peace effective of the corps of seamen is 6152, inclusive of the 400 boys in the training-ship "Schwartzenberg." The total force on the war establishment is 11,532.
To show briefly the general result of all this organization of materiel and personnel, it is perhaps sufficient to state the number of ships in commission at a given date in the present year (1883), and the numbers of their crews.
Including stationary and harbour ships, tenders, training and drill ships, troop and surveying ships, there are from Comparing this with foreign navies, the proportions may be fairly stated as follows : - Of works on British naval history, the following, among others, may he consulted : - Nicolas, History of the Navy from, the- Earliest Times to 1422, 2 vols., 1847 ; Campbell, Lives of the Admirals to 1727, 4 vols., 1750, and afterwards continued by Berkenhout and Yorke down to 1816 in 8 vols., the last edition being that of 1870; Southey, Lives of the British, Admirals, 5 vols., 1833 (from the Restoration); Lediard, Naval History of England to 1734, 1735 ; Beatson, Naval and Military Memoirs of Great Britain from 1727 Lo 1783, 1st edition, 3 vols., 1790 ; Brenton, Naval History from 1783 to 1836, 2 vols., 1837 ; James, Naval History from 1793 to 1827, 6 vols., many editions ; Schomberg, Naval Chronology to 1802, 5 vols., 1802; Naval Chronicle from 1799 to 1818, 40 vols.; Allen, Battles of the British Navy from 1190 to 1840, 2 vols., 1852 ; Yonge, History of British Navy from 700 to 1862, 2 vols., 1863. The following deal almost exclusively with the materiel of the navy: - Charnock, History of Naval Architecture, 3 vols., 1801; Derrick, Aremo'irs of the Navy, 1806; Perigal, Chart of Naval History from the Earliest Period to 1859, 1860. (N. B.)