Chutia Or Chota
british square miles population principal nagpur wild
CHUTIA or CHOTA. NAGPUR, a division or coinmissionership of British India, under the lieutenant-governor of Bengal, comprising the districts of Hazarlbdgb, Lohardaga, ManbhUm, and Sinhbhilm, and the seven tributary states which constitute the South-West Frontier Agency, lies between 21° and 25° N. lat. and 82° and 87° E. long. It is • bounded on the N. by the province of Behar, E. by the Bengal districts of Bfinkura and Midnapur, S. by the Orissa Tributary States and the Central Provinces, and W. by the independent state of Rewa. Of its area of 43,901 square miles a large portion is occupied by hills and jungle, and the population is very sparse. The most important peak, Paresndth, with its Jaina temples, has a height of 4400 feet. The Chutia, NAgpur plateau is an offshoot of the great Vindhyan range, and its mean elevation is upwards of 2000 feet above the sea level. In the W. it rises to 3600 feet, and to the E. and S. its lower steppe, from 800 to 1000 feet iu elevation, comprises a great portion of the Minhhum and Siuhbhdin districts. The whole is about 14,000 square miles in extent, and forms the source of the Bartikhar, Dzimodar, Kasai, Subanrekha, Baitarani, Brahmani, Eb, and other rivers. &I/ forests abound. The principal jungle products are timber, various kinds of medicinal fruits and herbs, lac, tasar silk, and incthed flowers, which are used as food by the wild tribes and also distilled into a strong country liquor. Coal exists in large quantities, but is at present only worked on a small scale on the Haziribagh district. Formerly gold was washed from the sands iu the bed of the Subaurekha River, but the operations are now almost wholly abandoned. Iron-ores abound, together with good building stone. The population in 1872 was 3,825,571, residing in 25,766 villages or townships and 752,287 houses. Of these the Hindus numbered 2,567,292, or 67.1 per cent. ; Muhammadans, 169,006, or 4'4 per cent. ; Christians, 15,798, or •4 per cent. ; persons of unspecified religion, 1,073,475, or 28.1 per cent.. These last consist of non-Aryan tribes who were driven from the plains by the Hindus and took refuge in the mountain fastnesses of the Chutia Nagpur plateau. The principal of them are lions, 292,036 in number; Santals, 220,096; Uraons or Dhangars, 208,343; Muudas, 100,095; and Bhumij,128,289. These tribes were formerly turbulent, and a source of trouble to the Muhammadan governors of Bengal and Behar ; but the introduction of British rule has secured peace and security, and the aboriginal races of alai& Nagpur are now peaceful and orderly subjects. Of late years missionaries have worked hard among them, and several thousands of the KoIs and SantaIs have accepted the Christian faith. Only six towns contain upwards of 5000 inhabitants, viz,, Banal, 12,086 ; Ilazaribzigh, 11,050 ; lchalc, 8999 ; Chatra, 8818 ; Purulia, 5696 ; and Ragliunathpur, 5380. The principal agricultural products are rice, Indian corn, pulses, oil-seeds and potatoes. A small quantity of tea is grown in Hazaribtigh. and Lohardaga districts. Lac and tasar silkcloth are largely manufactured. The revenue of the British portion of Chutia Nagpur in 1870 was £101,651, the expenditure £79,472. Of the total revenue the receipts from land amounted to X23,698. The police of the British districts consisted in 1872 of 1590 officers and men of the regular force, maintained at a cost of £31,131 ; 172 officers and men of the municipal police, costing £981 ; 15,104 men of the village watch, costing £17,592 ; the total strength being 16,866 officers and men, and the total cost £49,705. In 1872-73, the Educational Department inspected 571 schools attended by 15,871 pupils, and the total cost of Government for the education of the people was £2371. The climate of Chutia Nagpur is dry and healthy.
C HUTIA (CHOTA.) NAGPUR TRIBUTARY STATES. These are seven in number, - Sirguja, Udaipur, Jashpur, Gangpur, Bonai, Kora, and Chang Bhakar. At the decline of the lliarhattti power in the early part of this century these estates came under British protection. They are now under the political superintendence of the commissioner of Chutia .Nagpur, and the charge of them constitutes what is known as the South-West Frontier Agency Before the rise of the British power in India their chiefs exercised almost absolute sovereignty in their respective territories. The Raje.s now pay a light tribute to the British Government, and are invested with magisterial authority to punish offenders by fine not exceeding £5 or by imprisonment not exceeding two years. The states are mountainous, thinly cultivated, and inhabited for the most part by wild aboriginal tribes. They cover an area of 15,419 square miles, the largest states being Sirguja and Gangpur. Their aggregate population amounts to 405,980 souls, giving an average of 26 persons to the square mile. No towns exist in the Tributary States, and only three villages contain more than 1000 inhabitants. The following is a brief description of each of the States : - Sirguja, the largest, lies between 22° 30' and 24° N. lat., and 82° 35 and 84° 10 E. long. It is bounded on the N. by the independent state of flews and the districts of Mirzapur and Lohardaga, on the E. by the district of Lohardiga, on the S. by the Bilispor district of the Central Provinces and the states of Udaipur and Jashpur, and on the W. by the state of Ileum. It is very hilly, with elevated table-lands affording good pastut ages, and cut up by numerous ravines. The rivers are the Kanhar, 11laiin, Son, and Santeh, the last being formerly known as the Diamond River. Hot springs exist in the state. Extensive sa forests cover a large area, affording shelter to herds of wild elephants, antelopes, bisons, buflidoes, and many sorts of deer, and also to tigers, bears, and other beasts of prey. The area is 6103 square miles; the population in 1872, 152,831 souls, residing in 1295 villages and 36,463 houses : - classified, according to religion - Hindus 65,789, or 37'6 per cent. ; Mulnumnadans 1370, or •8 per cent. ; aborigines of the Dravidian stock 73,256, of the Kolitrian stock 39,416, total 112,672, or 61.6 per cent. The principal agricultural products are rice, Indian corn, and other inferior cerels, pulses, oilseeds, and cotton ; the articles of export - clarified butter, grain, oilseeds, lac, gums, jungle silk cocoons (tasar), sac. ; imports - brass and pewter vessels, piece goods, and ornaments. The places of trade are Bisrampur, the capital of the state, Pratappor, and The total revenue of the estates in Sirgujii in possession of the different members of the chiefs family is £7000 ; the rental of the personal estate of the Raja, £3000 ; the expenditure on admini.,- tmtion, X212. A small body of police is maintained by the Raja, and he can at a short notice put himself at the head of 1000 fighting men. Sirgujii pays a tribute of .ti189 to the British Government.
Udaipur lies between 22° 3' and 22° 50' N. let., and 83° 5' and 83° 50' E. long., and is bounded on the N. by the Mainpat plateau in Sirguki, on the E. by Jashpur, on the S. by Rai-garb, and on the W. by Bilaspur in the Central Provinces. Country hilly, diversified with plains, and possessing one of the most extensive coal fields in India. Principal river, Maud. Area, 1051 square miles, of which 121 are cultivated. Population27,708 : - Hindus, 7351 ; Muhammadans, 118 ; aborigines, 20,239: Principal villages - lialkoh, the capital, and Dorki. Exports - cotton, resinous gums, oilseeds, rice, wild arrowroot, iron, and a small quantity of gold, obtained by washing. tidaipur C111110 under the British protection in 1817, and now pays an annual tribute of £53.
Gangpur extends from 21° 50' to 22° 30' N. lat., and 85° 10' to 85° 40' of E. long., and is bounded on the N. by Lohardaga district, E. by the Sinhblifim district, S. by Sambalpur and Hamra, and W. by Raigarh in the Central Provinces. The country is for the most part an undulating plain, broken by detached ranges of hills, one of which, the Mahavira range, possesses a very remarkable and imposing appearance, springing abruptly front the plain in an irregular wall of tilted and disrupted rock, with two flanking peaks. The rivers are the Eb and the Brahmani, formed here by the union of the Sankh and tire Noel, both navigable by canoes. The lib was formerly famous on account of diamonds found in its bed, and its sands are still explored for gold. One of the largest coal fields in India extends into the state. Jungle products - lac, silk cocoons, catechn, and resin, which are exported. Wild animals - bisons, buffaloes, tigers, panthers, leopards, hyenas, wolves, jackals, wild dogs, and many sorts of deer. Area, 2484 square miles ; population, 73,637, viz., Hindus, 28,192 ; Muhammadans, 231 ; aborigines, 45,214. Principal village, Swidi, the residence of the Raja. The soil is exceedingly fertile, yielding sugar cane, tobacco, rice, and other cereals, pulses, oilseeds, and cotton. The chief enjoys a revenue of about £200, out of which he pays £50 as tribute to the British Government, the connection of which with the state dates from 1803.
Bonai extends from 20° 10' to 21° 10' N. lat., and from 84° 30' to 85° 25' E. long., and is bounded on the N. by the Gangpur state and the Sinhbhiim district, on the E. by the state of Keunjhar in Orissa, and on the S. and W. by the state of 13amra in the Central Provinces. It is for the most part covered with a mass of uninhabited hills, except the central part, through which the Brahmani river passes, forming a fine fertile valley along its course. Principal heights - Mankarnichi, 3639 feet • Baddingad', 3525 ; Kamaatar, 3490; ChelLitaka, 3308 ; and Komiadhar, 3000. Products - almost the same as Gangpur. Area, 1297 square miles ; population, 24,832, viz., Hindus, 10,416 ; Muhammadans, 32 ; and aborigines, 14,384. The chief enjoys an income of about £600, and he pays an annual tribute of £20 to the British Government. In 1803 the British Government entered into treaty relations with Bonai.
Koria lies between 22° 58' and 23° 49' N. lat., and 82° and 82° 59' E. long., and is bounded on the N. by the Rewa state, E. by Sirguji, S. by Bilaspur district of the Central Provinces, and on the W. by Chang Bhakar. Country extremely hilly ; highest point, 3370 feet. Rivers - Heshto or Hasdo, Gopath, and other minor streams which feed either the Son on the N. or the Mahanuddy on the S. Jungle and agricultural products - same as the other states. Mineral product - iron. Tigers commit great havoc in the villages, and wild animals abound. Area, 1631 square miles ; population, 21,127, viz., Hindus, 10,807 ; Muhammadans, 140 ; aborigines, 10,180. Principal village - Sonhat, the residence of the Raja, which contains a mud fort. The Raja enjoys an income of about £700, and pays a tribute of £40 to the British Government. The relations of the British Government with this state commenced in 1818.
Chang Bhakar state protrudes like a spur into the Rewii territorv, which bounds it to the N., W., and S., the eastern side being bounded by the state of Koria, of which it was formerly a fief. The natural scenery of the country consists of hills, ravines, and plateaus, covered with forests of sci/, with small villages at distant intervals in the jungle. Herds of wild elephants commit sad havoc on the crops, which has caused the desertion of several villages. Area, 906 square miles ; population, 8919, viz., 2728 Hindus, 34 Muhammadans, and 6157 aborigines. The chief has an income of about £300, and pays a tribute of £38, 12s. (W. W. H.)