CARTWRIGHT, THOMAS (e. 1535-1603), a Puritan divine, was born in Hertfordshire about the year 1535. He studied divinity at St John's College, Cambridge, but during the reign of Mary was compelled to adopt the legal profession. On the accession of Elizabeth, he resumed his theological studies, and was soon afterwards elected fellow of Trinity College. In 1570, he was appointed Margaret divinity professor ; but Dr Whitgift, on becoming chancellor in 1571, deprived him of the post. This was a natural consequence of the use which he made of his position. He inveighed bitterly against the hierarchy. He attacked the Elizabethan theory of a state-controlled church, advocating, on the contrary, a church-controlled state, in which the presbyter was to enjoy a lofty authority, for his use of which he was to be responsible to God alone. He even tam,I,. that no opinions but his own were to be tolerated, and that heresy against them was a sin deserving of death. Immediately after this he removed to the Continent, and officiated as clergyman to the English residents, first at Antwerp and then at Middleburg. On his return he became still further embroiled with Dr Whitgift and the Government, on account of his Admonition, to Parliament, which was full of the most violent attacks on the existing condition of church and state. In 1590 he was summoned before the Star Chamber and imprisoned, and in 1591 he was once more committed to the Fleet by Aylmer, bishop of London. He was finally liberated in 1592 and allowed to preach, and the remaining eleven years of his life were undisturbed.