LAWS. - The laws of chess differ, although not very materially, in different countries. Various steps have been taken, but as yet without success, to secure the adoption of a universally authoritative code. In competitions among English players the particular laws to be observed are specially agreed on, - the regulations most generally adopted being those laid down at length in Staunton's Chess Praxis, or the modification of the Praxis laws issued in the name of the British Chess Association in 1862.
The following rules may be here indicated. The board must be so placed that each combatant has a white square in his right hand corner. A player touching any of his own men or those of his adversary (except accidentally) without previously saying " facloube ," or "I adjust," or words to that effect, may be compelled to move or capture (as the case may be) the man so touched ; if this cannot be done he must move his king, but if that be likewise impossible, there is then no penalty. If a player make a false or illegal move or capture, he must, at the choice of his opponent, and according to the case, move his own man legally, capture the man legally, or move any other man legally movable. In practice, the usual demand is that the offender shall move his king. After four moves have been made on each side, any such illegality is waived, and the game must be played out as it stands. Should the king be left in check, all the moves subsequently made must be retraced and the check replied t.o.