JOHN XXI. (pope from 1276 to 1277), successor to Adrian V., should, according to the order observed above, be named John XX., but there is an error in the reckoning through the insertion of an antipope before John XV. or some time after John XIX. At the time of his elevation to the papal chair he was cardinal-bishop of Tusculum, and he had previously been archbishop of Braga. He was a Portuguese by birth, and his original name was Pedro Juliani. The son of a physician, he had studied with distinction at Paris, was the author of several medical and scholastic treatises, and is mentioned by some chroniclers as a magician. His small affection for the monks, his unecclesiastical tone and habits, free and unaffected intercourse with every class of men, and proficiency in secular science, awakened against him the jealousy and distrust of the clergy, but probably his comprehensive and liberal policy would have shed exceptional lustre on the church had not his life been brought to a premature close through the fall of the roof which he had planned for one of his rooms in the palace of Viterbo. His successor was Nicholas III.