josika literary wife
JOSIK A, Mixas or NICHOLAS, BARON (1794-1865), the greatest and, next to J6kai, most prolific Hungarian novelist, was born 28th April 1794, at Torda in Transylvania, of aristocratic and wealthy parents. After finishing the usual course of legal studies at Kolozsvdr (Klausenburg), he in 1811 at the age of seventeen entered the army, joining a cavalry regiment, with which he subsequently took part in the Italian campaign. In 1813 he was promoted to the grade of sub-lieutenant, and on the battlefield of Mincio (February 8, 1814) to that of lieutenant. Elevated to the rank of captain, he served in the campaign against Napoleon, and was present at the entry of the allied troops into Paris (31st March 1814). In 1818 Jesika resigned his commission in the army, returned to Hungary, and married his first wife Elizabeth Kallai. The union proving an unhappy one, Josika parted from his wife, settled on his estate at Szurdok in Transylvania, and devoted himself to agricultural and literary pursuits. Drawn into the sphere of politics, he took part in the memorable Transylvanian diet of 1834. At about this period Jesika first began to attract attention as a writer of fiction. In 1836 he brought out his Abaft, 2 vols., which laid the foundation of his literary reputation. He was soon afterwards elected member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and of the Kisfaludy Society ; of the latter he became, in 1841, director, and in 1842 vice-president. In 1847 Josika appeared at the Transylvanian diet as second deputy for the county of Szolnok, and zealously supported the movement for the union of Transylvania with Hungary proper. In the same year he was converted to Protestantism, was formally divorced from his wife, and married Baroness Julia Podmaniczky, with whom he continued to live happily until his death. So great was Jesika's literary activity that by the time of the revolution (1848) he had already produced about sixty volumes of romances and novels, besides numerous contributions to literary and political periodicals. Both as magnate of the upper house of the Hungarian diet and by 'phis writings Josika aided the revolutionary movement, with which he was soon personally identified, being chosen one of the members of the committee of national defence. Consequently, after the capitulation at Vildgos (13th August 1849), he found it necessary to flee the country, and settled first at Dresden and then, in 1850, at Brussels, where he resumed his literary pursuits anonymously. In 1864 he removed to Dresden, in which city he died on the 27th February 1865. The romances of Jbsika, written somewhat after the style of Sir Walter Scott, are chiefly of a historical and social-political character, his materials being drawn almost entirely from the annals of his own country. Among his more important works may be specially mentioned, besides Abaft - The Poet Zrinyi, 1843 ; The last of the Batoris' 1837 ; The Bohemians in Hungary, 1839 ; Esther, 1853 ; Francis lecikoczy II., 1861 ; and A regviiriak, a tale of the time of the Transylvanian prince Deaden Gabor, 1864. Many of Josika's novels have been translated into German, the earlier ones by Klein, Schwarz, Steinacker, and Kovacs, and the later by Josika's second wife Julia, herself an authoress of considerable merit.
See K. licenielt and S. Vutkovich, Magyar Ira Kithira, Budapest, 1876 ; M. J6kai, " Josika Mikl6s Emlekezete," A Kiealudy- • Tiirsasiig Erlapjai, irj folyam, vol. iii., Pest, 1869 ; G. W. Steinacker, Ungarische Lyriker, Leipsie, 1874. Cf. also JOsika's autobiography - Ern/glare, Pest, 1865, vol. iv.