JOPPA, the Greek 'Icisrz-n, '1(1777), Hebrew JAPHO, and bay south of the town, called Birket el liantr ("Moonpool"), is possibly the old harbour, the present one being formed by a reef having a broad entrance on the north-west and a narrow passage in the middle. The coast being quite straight and unsheltered, the port possesses neither natural nor artificial advantages. In the 5th, Gth, and 11th centuries bishops of Joppa are noticed, under the metropolitan of Jerusalem. In 1187 Saladin took the town, which was recovered by King Richard•in 1191 and retaken by Malek el 'Add in 1196. In 1799 Napoleon stormed the city, then protected. by walls. The fortifications were further increased at a later period by the English. The 'modern town, the seaport of Jerusalem, with which it is connected by a carriage road in very bad repair, is built on a rounded hillock rising 100 feet above the shore ; to the north and south are sandhilis ; to the east are gardens of oranges, pomegranates, figs, and olives. Sweet water is derived from numerous wells, and palms and bananas occur in these orchards, which cover an area of 3 square miles. The walls of the town still remain standing ; the houses are of stone, well built, and the bazaars are good. The town is the seat of a eaim-macam or lieutenant-governor. It contains English, French, German, and American consulates, and Latin and Greek monasteries. The trade consists of wheat, sesame, oranges and other fruit, olives, and soap ; the population is stated at 8000, the majority being Moslems. A German colony established in 1869 has built two villages, one just outside the town on the north-east, the second (Sartnia) at a distance of 2 miles. The colonists number about 300.
Joppa claimed to be taro place where Andromeda was exposed. There her chains were shown (Jos., 13. J., iii. 9, 13), and theme the skeleton of the monster was brought to Rome by Scamms (Pliny, ix. 4).