JOHN X. (pope from 911 to 928) was deacon at Bologna when he attracted the attention of the empress Theodora, through whose influence he was elevated first to that see and then to the archbishopric of Ravenna. In direct opposition to a decree of council, he was also at the instigation of Theodora promoted to the papal chair as the successor of Lando. Like John IX. lie endeavoured to secure himself against his temporal enemies through a close alliance with the imperial power and the establishment of an independent Italian kingdom. With this view he in December 915 granted the imperial crown to Berengar, and with the assistance of the imperial troops and the forces of the duke of Benevento and Naples he took the field in person against the Saracens, over whom he gained a great victory on the banks of the Garigliano. The defeat and death of Berengar through the combination of the Italian princes again frustrated the hopes of a united Italy subservient to papal purposes, and after witnessing several years of anarchy and confusion John perished through the intrigues of Marozia, daughter of Theodora. His successor was Leo VI.